Kazım Paşa (Karabekir)
was born in 1882 in Istanbul. He graduated from the War Academy in 1902 and
the Army Staff School in 1905. His first place of duty was Monastir, where, together with Enver Bey, he opened the local branch of the Committee of
Union and Progress (CUP).
reinstalment of the constitutional rule in 1908, he was assigned to the
Second Army in Edirne. He was with the Liberation Army, which suppressed a
counter-revolutionary rebellion in Istanbul in 1909 and during the Balkan
War he took part in the defense of Edirne.
When the World
War broke out, he was first sent to Gallipoli, where he fought against the
French and then, in 1915, he became was promoted to Colonel and went to
Iraq, where he was the Chief of Staff of the German General Colmar von der
Goltz. In 1916, he was the commander of the XVIII Corps that captured Kut
al-Amara from the British and the next year, when he was appointed to the
command of the II Corps stationed in Diyarbakır, he was also the acting
commander of the Second Army. In this capacity, in 1918, he recaptured
Erzurum and Erzincan from the Armenians and the invading Russian forces. He
took his troops to Azerbaijan and forced the British units out of this
region. The same year he was made a general.
armistice, he worked together with Mustafa Kemal and during the War of
Independence he commanded the Turkish forces in the Eastern Front. He
liberated Kars from the Armenians and signed the Agreement of Gümrü with
Armenia, on behalf of the Ankara government.
joined the Parliament in 1923 and formed the Progressive Republican Party
the next year. This party was closed on May 3, 1925 and Kazım Paşa was tried
due to his alleged involvement in the assassination attempt against Mustafa
Kemal Atatürk. He was found not guilty, thanks to Mustafa Kemal’s
intervention, but all the relations between these two comrades-in-arms were
reentered the Parliament in 1939, after Atatürk’s death and became the
Chairman of the Parliament in 1946. He remained at this post until his death
on January 27, 1948 in Ankara.