Turkey in the First World War

Treaty of Alliance between Turkey and Germany

The Treaty of Alliance between Turkey and Germany was signed in secrecy at Grand Vizier Sait Halim Paşa's mansion in Tarabya, Istanbul. The Treaty was signed on August 2nd, 1914 and ratified by the Ottoman Government on October 17th, 1914. The original document is kept at the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany.

Treaty of Alliance between Turkey and Germany

1. The two contracting parties agree to observe strict neutrality in regard to the present conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.

2. In case Russia should intervene with active military measures, and should thus bring about a casus foederis for Germany with relation to Austria-Hungary, this casus foederis would also come into existence for Turkey.

3. In case of war, Germany will leave her military mission at the disposal of Turkey.  The latter, for her part, assures the said military mission an effective influence on the general conduct of the army, in accordance with the understanding arrived at directly between His Excellency the Minister of War and His Excellency the Chief of the Military Mission.

4. Germany obligates herself, if necessary by force of arms Ottoman territory in case it should be threatened.

5. This agreement which has been concluded for the purpose of protecting both Empires from international complications which may result from the present conflict goes into force as soon as it is signed by the above-mentioned plenipotentiaries, and shall remain valid, together with any similar mutual agreements, until December 31, 1918.

6. In case it shall not be denounced by one of the high contracting parties six months before the expiration of the term named above, this treaty shall remain in force for a further period of five years.

7. This present document shall be ratified by His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, and by His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, and the ratifications shall be exchanged within a period of one month from the date of its signing.

8. The present treaty shall remain secret and can only be made public as a result of an agreement arrived at between the two high contracting parties.

Signed by:
Baron von Wangenheim (Ambassador of Germany in Istanbul)
Said Halim Paşa (Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire) / © Altay Atlı / this page is last updated on June 26, 2006