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This is the peace treaty that ended the Turco-Italian war in Northern Africa in 1911-1912. It was signed in Ouchy (a lakeside district of Lausanne in Switzerland) on October 18, 1912.

TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN ITALY AND TURKEY SIGNED AT LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND, OCTOBER 18, 1912.

His Majesty the King of Italy, and

His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans

being equally desirous of putting an end to the state of war existing between the two countries, have appointed as their plenipotentiaries :

His Majesty the King of Italy :

Mr. Pietro Bertolini, Great Cross of the Order of the Saints Maurizio and Lazzaro, Deputy to the Parliament.

Mr. Guido Fusinato, Great Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy, Grand Official of the Order of the Saints Maurizio and Lazzaro, Deputy to the Parliament, Member of the Council of State

Mr. Giuseppe Volpi, Commendatore of the Orders of the Saints Maurizio and Lazzaro and of the Crown of Italy.

His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans :

His Excellency Mehemmed Naby Bey, Great Cordon of the Imperial Order of the Osmanie, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans

His Excellency Roumbeyoglou Fahreddin Bey, Grand Official of the Imperial Order of the Medjidie, Commander of the Order of the Osmanie, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister, Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans

Who, after having exchanged their respective Full Powers, and having found them in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:

ARTICLE I. The two governments undertake, immediately after the signature of the present Treaty, to take the necessary steps for the immediate and simultaneous cessation of hostilities. Special Commissioners will be sent to the scenes of hostilities to ensure the execution of the above-mentioned steps.

ARTICLE II. The two governments undertake, immediately after the signature of the present Treaty, to send orders recalling their officers and troops, and also their civil functionaries, respectively, the Ottoman Government from Tripoli and Cyrenaica, and the Italian Government from the islands occupied in the Aegean Sea. The effective evacuation of the above-mentioned islands by the Italian officers, troops, and civil functionaries will take place immediately after the evacuation of Tripoli and Cyrenaica by the Ottoman officers, troops, and civil functionaries.

ARTICLE III. Prisoners of war and hostages will be exchanged with as little delay as possible.

ARTICLE IV. The two governments undertake to grant full and complete amnesty, the Royal Government to the inhabitants of Tripoli and Cyrenaica, and the Imperial Government to the inhabitants of the islands in the Aegean Sea, subject to Ottoman sovereignty, who may have taken part in the hostilities or may have compromised themselves in that connection, without committing crimes against the civil law. In consequence, no individual of any class or condition shall be proceeded against or troubled in his person or property, or in the exercise of his rights on account of political or military acts, even of opinions expressed during the hostilities. Persons detained or deported for such cause shall at once be set free.

ARTICLE V. All treaties, conventions, and undertakings of all kinds, sorts, or nature concluded or in force between the two high contracting parties previously to the declaration of war shall at once come into force again, and the two governments shall be placed in regard to each other, as shall their respective subjects, in the identical position in which they were before the outbreak of hostilities.

ARTICLE VI. Italy undertakes to conclude with Turkey, at the same time as she renews her commercial treaties with other Powers, a commercial treaty based on European public law that is to say, she consents to leave Turkey all her economic independence, and the right to act in commercial matters and matters of Customs in the same way as all European Powers without being bound by the Capitulations and other Acts now in force. It is clearly understood that the said Commercial Treaty shall not come into force except in so far as commercial treaties concluded by the Porte with other Powers on a similar basis shall be in force. Further, Italy consents to the increase from 11 per cent to 15 per cent of the AD VALOREM Customs duty in Turkey, as well as to the creation of new monopolies, of the levying of consumption surtaxes on the five following articles: Petroleum, cigarette paper, matches, alcohol, and playing cards. All this is on condition that the same treatment be applied simultaneously and without distinction to the imports from other countries. In so far as there is a question of the importation of articles which are the object of monopolies, the Administration of such monopolies is bound to procure goods of Italian origin, according to a percentage based on the annual importation of these goods, provided that the price offered for the supply of such monopoly goods shall be in conformity with the state of the market at the moment of purchase, taking into consideration the qualities of the goods to be supplied and the average price ruling during the three years preceding that in which war was declared for similar qualities. It is further understood that, should Turkey, instead of establishing new monopolies on the five articles mentioned above, decide to levy consumption surtaxes on them, such surtaxes shall be imposed in the same degree on the similar products of Turkey and all other nations.

ARTICLE VII. The Italian Government undertakes to suppress the Italian postoffices operating in the Ottoman Empire at the same time as the other States having postoffices in Turkey shall suppress theirs.

ARTICLE VIII. As the Porte proposes to open negotiations, at a European conference or otherwise, with the Great Powers interested for the cessation of the capitulary regime in Turkey, and the substitution for it of the regime of international law, Italy, recognizing the good grounds for these intentions of the Porte, declares its willingness henceforth to give the Porte its full and sincere support to this end.

ARTICLE IX. The Ottoman Government, being desirous of testifying its satisfaction with the good and loyal services rendered to it by Italian subjects employed in different branches of the Administration, whom it was forced to dismiss on the outbreak of hostilities, declares its readiness to reinstate them in the situations which they gave up. Half pay will be given to them for the months that they were unemployed, and this interruption in their service will in no way prejudice employees having the right to a retiring tension. Further, the Ottoman Government undertakes to use its good offices with the institutions 

with which it has relations (the Public Debt, Railway Companies, Banks, &c.) to obtain the same treatment for Italian subjects who were in their service and found themselves in a similar position.

ARTICLE X. The Italian Government undertakes to pay annually to the Caisse of the Public Debt, on account of the Imperial Government, a sum corresponding to the average of the sums which, in each of the three years preceding that of the declaration of war, had been assigned to the service of the Public Debt out of the receipts of the two provinces. The amount of the said annuity shall be determined in agreement by two Commissioners appointed, one by the Royal Government and the other by the Imperial Government. In case of disagreement the decision shall be referred to an arbitral court composed of the said Commissioners and an arbitrator appointed by agreement between the two parties. Should no agreement be reached on this point, each party shall designate a different Power, and the choice of arbitrator shall be made jointly by the Powers thus selected. The Royal Government and the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, by the intermediary of the Imperial Government, shall have the right to demand the institution for the above-mentioned annuity of a corresponding sum capitalized at the rate of 4 per cent.

As regards the foregoing paragraph, the Royal Government declares that it recognizes at once that the annuity cannot be less than the sum of 2,000,000 Italian lire, and is ready to pay to the Administration of the Public Debt the corresponding capitalized sum directly a demand is made for it.

ARTICLE XI. The present treaty shall enter into force on the day of its signature.

The Treaty of Alliance between Turkey and Germany was signed in secrecy at Grand Vizier Sait Halim Paşa’s mansion in Tarabya, Istanbul. The Treaty was signed on August 2nd, 1914 and ratified by the Ottoman Government on October 17th, 1914. The original document is kept at the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany.

Treaty of Alliance between Turkey and Germany

1. The two contracting parties agree to observe strict neutrality in regard to the present conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.

2. In case Russia should intervene with active military measures, and should thus bring about a casus foederis for Germany with relation to Austria-Hungary, this casus foederis would also come into existence for Turkey.

3. In case of war, Germany will leave her military mission at the disposal of Turkey. The latter, for her part, assures the said military mission an effective influence on the general conduct of the army, in accordance with the understanding arrived at directly between His Excellency the Minister of War and His Excellency the Chief of the Military Mission.

4. Germany obligates herself, if necessary by force of arms Ottoman territory in case it should be threatened.

5. This agreement which has been concluded for the purpose of protecting both Empires from international complications which may result from the present conflict goes into force as soon as it is signed by the above-mentioned plenipotentiaries, and shall remain valid, together with any similar mutual agreements, until December 31, 1918.

6. In case it shall not be denounced by one of the high contracting parties six months before the expiration of the term named above, this treaty shall remain in force for a further period of five years.

7. This present document shall be ratified by His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, and by His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, and the ratifications shall be exchanged within a period of one month from the date of its signing.

8. The present treaty shall remain secret and can only be made public as a result of an agreement arrived at between the two high contracting parties.

Signed by:
Baron von Wangenheim (Ambassador of Germany in Istanbul)
Said Halim Paşa (Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire)

On October 22, 1914, the Ottoman Minister of War, Enver Paşa, submitted an order to the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman Army, the German Admiral Wilhelm v. Souchon, to engage the Russian fleet in the Black Sea. Souchon, however, took the fleet directly to the Russian Black Se ports and bombarded them. With this attack, the Ottoman Empire was officially in war.
 
General Headquarters 
 
Istanbul, 22.10.1914
 
to the Commander of the Fleet
Mr. Admiral Souchon
 
The Turkish fleet must achieve naval domination in the Black Sea.
 
Search for the Russian fleet, attack wherever you find it, without a declaration of war.
 
Enver
 
The writing below the text is the handwritten translation of the original by Hafız Hakkı Bey.
 
The original document is stored at the Turkish General Staff Military History archives. The facsimile was reproduced by Ali Kaşıyuğun in his unpublished doctoral dissertation.

The following text is the proclamation of war, as read by Sultan Mehmet Reşad on November 11th, 1914 in Istanbul. The proclamation was published by all major newspapers the next day and the picture below on the left shows the first page of one of the most popular daily newspapers of the time “Servet-i Fünun”, which has reproduced the text.  

To my Army, to my Navy,

After the declaration of war among the Great Powers, I had called you to arms in order to be able to protect the rights and existence of our state and country against and unjust aggression of opportunist enemies if the need would arise.

While we were thus in a state of armed neutrality, the Russian fleet, which was on its way to lay mines at the entrance of the Black Sea Straits, suddenly opened fire on a part of our Navy that was engaged in manoeuvres. As Russia was expected to correct this unjustified act of aggression, which violates the international law, this country, together with her allies Britain and France, chose to severe diplomatic relations with our country by withdrawing their ambassadors. Subsequently, Russian troops violated our borders. British and French fleets jointly bombarded the Dardanelles, whereas the British fleet shelled the port of Akaba. 

In the face of these successive and treacherous acts of hostility, we were forced to leave the long desired peace and appeal to arms in alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in order to protect our lawful interests.

Over the last three centuries, Russia has caused our great country to suffer many losses in territory and when we finally arose to that sentiment of awakening and regeneration which would increase our national welfare and our power, the Russian Empire made every effort to destroy our attempts, either with war or with all sorts of intrigues.

Russia, England and France never for a moment ceased harbouring ill-will against our great Caliphate to which millions of Muslims suffering under their tyranny are religiously and whole-heartedly devoted, and it was always these powers that started every disaster and misfortune that came upon us.

Therefore, with this holy war which we are undertaking, God willing, we will put a definitive end to the attacks made against the glory of our Caliphate as well as against our sovereignty and from the other against the existence of our country.

Those first hits inflicted by our Navy in the Black Sea and our brave soldiers in Çanakkale, Akaba and the Caucasian frontier, with the help of God and the spiritual assistance of the Prophet, have strengthened our conviction that our sacred struggle for a right cause will be victorious. Moreover, this belief of ours is also confirmed by the fact that the countries and armies of our enemies are being crushed under the valiant heels of our allies.

My brave soldiers,

Never even for a single moment abstain from strenuous efforts and self-sacrifice in our cause and this holy war we have opened against enemies who dared to undermine our religion and our beloved homeland. Throw yourselves against the enemy as lions for the life and existence of both our country and 300 million Muslims, whom I have summoned by sacred decree to a supreme struggle, depend on your victory. Prayers and good wishes of the hearts of 300 million aggrieved and innocent believers, whose faces are turned in devotion to the Lord of the universe in mosques and the holy Kaaba, are with you.

My sons, my soldiers,

No army in the world was ever honoured with a duty like yours. When executing it, show that you are the descendants of the Ottoman armies that in the past made the world tremble, so that the enemies of our religion and our country will never again dare to tread on our sacred soil and to disturb the peace of the sacred soil of Hejaz, where the holy Kabaa and the tomb of our Prophet lies. Prove our enemies effectively that they are facing an Ottoman army and navy that know how to defend their religion, their homeland and their military honour with arms and how to defy death for their Sultan.

Since right and justice are on our side, whereas hatred and tyranny are on our enemies’, there is no doubt that the divine help of God and the moral support of our glorious Prophet will guide us.

I am convinced that we will emerge from this war as a glorious and powerful country that has recovered the losses of the past. Do not forget that we are comrades-in-arms with the two bravest and magnificent armies of the world. Let those of you who are to die become messengers of victory to those who have gone before us. Let the victory be sacred and the sword be sharp for those who are to remain in life.

Sultan Mehmet Reşad

In November 1914, when the Ottoman Empire officially entered the war against the Allies, the Sultan had issued a declaration stating that it was a “Cihad-ı Ekber” (the greatest of all wars). This was not enough. It had to be declared as a “Cihad-ı Mukaddes” (holy war), because the Ottoman Sultan was at the same time the Caliph of all the Muslims in the world. This meant that the Muslims of the world were supposed to join the Turkish efforts to fight against the “infidels.”
 
The Sheikh-ul Islam, the top religious officer of the Ottoman government, proclaimed the holy war at the Fatih Mosque in Istanbul by reading the “fatwa” (religious decree). 
 
“Would it be a religious duty for all the Muslims in all countries, whether young or old, infantry or cavalry, to resort to jihad with all their properties and lives, as required by the Quranic verse of Enfiru, if the Sultan of Islam declares war and calls the entire population under arms, when there is an enemy attack against Islam and Islamic countries are extorted and pillaged and Islamic people are enslaved?
 
Answer: It would.  
 

Text of the fatwa

Leaflet with a popular version of the call for jihad | Edhem Eldem collection

In this way, would it be a religious duty for them to declare war against Russia, Britain and France and their helpers and supporters, who are enemies of the Islamic Caliphate and trying to –may God forbid- extinguish the divine light of Islam by attacking the seat of the Caliph and the Ottoman nation with battleships and land forces?
 
Answer: It would.
 
In this way, when success depends on all Muslims to resort to jihad, would it be a sin and a major rebellion if they –may God forbid- refuse to do so and would they deserve the wrath of God and the punishment for this great sin?
 
Answer: They would.
 
In this way, would the above mentioned state, who are fighting against the state of Islam deserve to be killed and burn in infernal fire if they, deliberately or under coercion, murder Muslim people, destroy their families and fight against the soldiers of the state of Islam?
 
Answer: They would.
 
In this way, would the Muslims living under the sovereignty of Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Montenegro and their supporters deserve sever suffering if they fight against Germany and Austria, who are helping the Ottoman government, because it would be harmful for the Caliphate of Islam?
 
Answer: They would.”
 
Ketebetülfakiri ileyhüm taala
Hayri bin Avni Elürgabi
Afa anhüma
 
In Sarıkamış, when Turkish troops were freezing to death, Enver Paşa was worried not only about the outcome of the campaign but also about his own life. He was 34 years old, commanding an army, and could meet his death anytime. He took some pieces of paper from a notebook and wrote his testament. 
 
The testament does not have a date, but from the event he describes we can guess that it was written some time between the 26th and 28th of December 1914. It is addressed to the government, but it is not known if the document ever reached the Sublime Porte. It is also not known if it was the original one or just a draft. It is possible that he wrote it with the purpose of having it submitted to the government after his death.
 

“To the Government,  

My plan was to force the Russians to retreat by sending a corps twice as strong and consequently annihilating the enemy, which was pursued by the XI Corps and a cavalry division. IX and X Corps have successfully completed the movement. The enemy was attacked at, however could not be beaten.  Now I am waiting for the XI Corps and the cavalry division. If they come on time, I will destroy the enemy. However, in case if the enemy attacks our weakened troops before they arrive, it would mean that the Army is perished.  

Until now, soldiers and officers fought flawlessly. They executed all the maneuvers. If God also helps, success is inevitable. But if I fail, I shall die with my last soldier. In that case my testament is: I believe I have done my duty and I die with this belief. Resist the enemy until the very end. In any way, we will be successful at the end of the day. I am dying without regretting what I did and with my heart at ease. Long live my religion, my country and my Padişah! 
 

If you shall be interested in helping those I leave behind, note that the allowance of my wife Sultan Efendi is not enough. In order to secure her welfare, I kindly ask you to at least transfer my salary from the High Command to her account. Also I kindly ask you to secure the welfare of my parents and some charity to be done under my name so that I can achieve divine grace. I am praying for the rise of my religion and my people – my only purpose was working for their ascent – and I greet all those who know me. Long live Islam and the Ottoman nation and the Padişah of Ottomans, Sultan Mehmet Han!  

                   E   n   v   e   r  
 
I have no wealth whatsoever. Whatever I have, I leave it to my wife Sultan Efendi. 
 
                  E   n   v   e   r”
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed between the newly established Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Central Powers on 3 March 1918 in Brest-Litovsk (current-day Brest in Belarus). The treaty marked the exit of post-Tsarist Russia from the World War.
 
THE PEACE OF BREST-LITOVSK-THE TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND GERMANY, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, BULGARIA, AND TURKEY
 

The first two pages of the treaty

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey for the one part, and Russia for the other part, being in accord to terminate the state of war, and to enter into peace negotiations as speedily as possible, have appointed as plenipotentiaries:
 
On the part of the Imperial German Government:
The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Actual Imperial Privy Councillor, Herr Richard von Kahlmann;
The Imperial Envoy and Minister Plenipotentiary, Dr von Rosenberg;
Royal Prussian Major-General Hoffmann, Chief of the General Staff of the Commander-in-Chief of the East;
Naval Captain Horn.
 
On the part of the Imperial and Royal joint Austro-Hungarian Government:
The Minister of the Imperial and Royal House and for Foreign Affairs, the Privy Councillor of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, Ottokar Count Czernin von und zu Chudenitz;
The Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, the Privy Councillor, Kajetan Mercy von Kapos-Mere;
 General of Infantry, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty’s Privy Councillor, Maximilian Csicserics von Bacsany.
 
On the part of the Royal Bulgarian Government:
 The Royal Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Vienna, Andrea Tosheff;
Colonel Peter Gantcheff of the General Staff, Royal Bulgarian Military Envoy Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the German Emperor and Aide-de-Camp of His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians;
The Royal Bulgarian First Legation Secretary, Dr Theodor Anastassof.
 

The Turkish delegation in Brest-Litovsk

On the part of the Imperial Ottoman Government:
His Highness Ibrahim Hakki Pasha, former Grand-Vizier, Member of the Ottoman Senate, Envoy Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Sultan to Berlin;
His Excellency, Zeki Pasha, General of Cavalry, Adjutant General of His Majesty the Sultan, and Military Envoy Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the German Emperor.
 
On the part of the Russian Federal Soviet Republic:
Grigory Yakovlevich Sokolnikov, Member of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Workers’, Soldiers’, and Peasants’ Deputies;
Lev Mikhailovich Karakhan, Member of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Workers’, Soldiers’, and Peasants’ Deputies;
Georgy Vasilievich Chicherin, Assistant to the People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs;
Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky, People’s Commissar for Internal Affairs.
 
The Plenipotentiaries met in Brest-Litovsk to enter into peace negotiations, and after presentation of their credentials, and finding them in good and proper form, have agreed upon the following stipulations:
 
ARTICLE I
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey for the one part, and Russia for the other part, declare that the state of war between them has ceased. They are resolved to live henceforth in peace and amity with one another.
 
ARTICLE II
The contracting parties will refrain from any agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public and military institutions of the other party. In so far as this obligation devolves upon Russia, it holds good also for the territories occupied by the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance.
 
ARTICLE III
The territories lying to the west of the line agreed upon by the contracting parties, which formerly belonged to Russia, will no longer be subject to Russian sovereignty; the line agreed upon is traced on the map submitted as an essential part of this treaty of peace (Annex 1). The exact fixation of the line will be established by a Russo-German commission.
No obligation whatever toward Russia shall devolve upon the territories referred to arising from the fact that they formerly belonged to Russia.
Russia refrains from all interference in the internal relations of these territories. Germany and Austria-Hungary purpose to determine the future status of these territories in agreement with their population.
 
ARTICLE IV
As soon as a general peace is concluded and Russian demobilization is carried out completely, Germany will evacuate the territory lying to the east of the line designated in paragraph I of Article III, in so far as Article VI does not determine otherwise.
Russia will do all within her power to insure the immediate evacuation of the provinces of eastern Anatolia and their lawful return to Turkey.
The districts of Ardahan, Kars, and Batum. will likewise and without delay be cleared of Russian troops. Russia will not interfere in the reorganization of the national and international relations of these districts, but leave it to the population of these districts to carry out this reorganization in agreement with the neighbouring States, especially with Turkey. 
 
ARTICLE V
Russia will, without delay, carry out the full demobilization of her army inclusive of those units recently organized by the present Government.
Furthermore, Russia will either bring her warships into Russian ports and there detain them until the day of the conclusion of a general peace, or disarm them forthwith. Warships of the States which continue in a state of war with the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, in so far as they are within Russian sovereignty, will be treated as Russian warships.
The barred zone in the Arctic Ocean continues as such until the conclusion of a general peace. In the Baltic sea, and as far as Russian power extends within the Black sea, removal of the mines will be proceeded with at once. Merchant navigation within these maritime regions is free and will be resumed at once. Mixed commissions will be organized to formulate the more detailed regulations, especially to inform merchant ships with regard to restricted lanes. The navigation lanes are always to be kept free from floating mines. 
 
ARTICLE VI
Russia obligates herself to conclude peace at once with the Ukrainian People’s Republic and to recognize the treaty of peace between that State and the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance. The Ukrainian territory will, without delay, be cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. Russia is to put an end to all agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public institutions of the Ukrainian People’s Republic.
Estonia and Livonia will likewise, without delay, be cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. The eastern boundary of Estonia runs, in general, along the river Narva. The eastern boundary of Livonia crosses, in general, lakes Peipus and Pskov, to the southwestern corner of the latter, then across Lake Luban in the direction of Livenhof on the [western] Dvina. Estonia and Livonia will be occupied by a German police force until security is ensured by proper national institutions and until public order has been established. Russia will liberate at once all arrested or deported inhabitants of Estonia and Livonia, and insures the safe return of all deported Estonians and Livonians.
Finland and the Aaland Islands will immediately be cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard, and the Finnish ports of the Russian fleet and of the Russian naval forces. So long as the ice prevents the transfer of warships into Russian ports, only limited forces will remain on board the warships. Russia is to put an end to all agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public institutions of Finland.
The fortresses built on the Aaland Islands are to be removed as soon as possible. As regards the permanent non-fortification of these islands as well as their further treatment in respect to military and technical navigation matters, a special agreement is to be concluded between
Germany, Finland, Russia, and Sweden; there exists an understanding to the effect that, upon Germany’s desire, still other countries bordering upon the Baltic Sea would be consulted in this matter.
 
ARTICLE VII
In view of the fact that Persia and Afghanistan are free and independent States, the contracting parties obligate themselves to respect the political and economic independence and the territorial integrity of these States. 
 
ARTICLE VIII
The prisoners of war of both parties will be released to return to their homeland. The settlement of the questions connected therewith will be effected through the special treaties provided for in Article XII. 
 
ARTICLE IX
The contracting parties mutually renounce compensation for their war expenses, i.e. of the public expenditures for the conduct of the war, as well as compensation for war losses, i.e. such losses as were caused them and their nationals within the war zones by military measures, inclusive of all requisitions effected in enemy country. 
 
ARTICLE X
Diplomatic and consular relations between the contracting parties will be resumed immediately upon the ratification of the treaty of peace. As regards the reciprocal admission of consuls, separate agreements are reserved. 
 
ARTICLE XI
As regards the economic relations between the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance and Russia the regulations contained in Appendices II-V are determinative, namely, Appendix II for the Russo-German, Appendix III for the Russo-Austro-Hungarian, Appendix IV for the Russo-Bulgarian, and Appendix V for the Russo-Turkish relations. 
 
ARTICLE XII
The re-establishment of public and private legal relations, the exchange of war prisoners and interned civilians, the question of amnesty as well as the question anent the treatment of merchant ships which have come into the power of the opponent, will be regulated in separate treaties with Russia which form an essential part of the general treaty of peace, and, as far as possible, go into force simultaneously with the latter. 
 
ARTICLE XIII
In the interpretation of this treaty, the German and Russian texts are authoritative for the relations between Germany and Russia; the German, the Hungarian, and Russian texts for the relations between Austria-Hungary and Russia; the Bulgarian and Russian texts for the relations between Bulgaria and Russia; and the Turkish and Russian texts for the relations between Turkey and Russia. 
 
ARTICLE XIV
The present treaty of peace will be ratified. The documents of ratification shall, as soon as possible, be exchanged in Berlin. The Russian Government obligates itself, upon the desire of one of the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance, to execute the exchange of the documefits of ratification within a period of two weeks. Unless otherwise provided for in its articles, in its annexes, or in the additional treaties, the treaty of peace enters into force at the moment of its ratification.
 
 
In testimony whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed this treaty with their own hand.
 
Executed in quintuplicate at Brest-Litovsk, 3 March 1918.

The Armistice of Mudros, which was concluded on October 30, 1918, ended the hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre of war between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies. It was signed by Rauf Bey, the Ottoman Minister of Marine, and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board Agamemnon in Mudros harbor on the Aegean island of Lemnos. The armistice was followed with occupation of Istanbul, the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and the Treaty of Sèvres, although the latter was never ratified due to the Turkish victory at the War of Liberation.

Armistice Convention with Turkey

Text of the armistice treaty as published in a Turkish newspaper | Vakit, November 3, 1918

1. Opening of Dardanelles and Bosporus and secure access to the Black Sea. Allied occupation of Dardanelles and Bosporus forts.

2. Positions of all minefields, torpedo tubes and other obstructions in Turkish waters to be indicated, and assistance given to sweep or remove them as may be required.

3. All available information as to mines in the Black Sea to be communicated.

4. All Allied prisoners of war and Armenian interned persons and prisoners to be collected in Constantinople and handed over unconditionally to the Allies.

5. Immediate demobilisation of the Turkish Army except for such troops as are required for surveillance of frontiers and for the maintenance of internal order (number of effectives and their disposition to be determined later by the Allies after consultation with the Turkish Government).

6. Surrender of all war vessels in Turkish waters or in waters occupied by Turkey; these ships to be interned at such Turkish port or ports as may be directed, except such small vessels as are required for police or similar purposes in Turkish territorial waters.

7. The Allies to have the right to occupy any strategic points in the event of a situation arising which threatens the security of the Allies.

8. Free use by the Allied ships of all ports and anchorages now in Turkish occupation, and denial of their use to the enemy. Similar conditions to apply to Turkish mercantile shipping in Turkish waters for purposes of trade and the demobilisation of the army.

9. Use of all ship repair facilities at all Turkish ports and arsenals.

10. Allied occupation of the Taurus tunnel system.

11. Immediate withdrawal of Turkish troops from north­west Persia to behind the pre-war frontier has already been ordered and will be carried out.

Part of Trans-Caucasia has already been ordered to be evacuated by Turkish troops, the remainder to be evacuated if required by the Allies after they have studied the situation there.

12. Wireless telegraph and cable stations to be controlled by the Allies, Turkish Government messages excepted.

13. Prohibition to destroy any naval, military, or commercial material.

14. Facilities to be given for the purchase of coal and oil-fuel and naval material from Turkish sources after the requirements of the country have been met.

None of the above material to be exported.

15. Allied Control Officers to be placed on all railways, including such portions of Trans-Caucasian railways now under Turkish control, which must be placed at the free and complete disposal of the Allied authorities, due consideration being given to the needs of the population.

This clause to include Allied occupation of Batoum. Turkey will raise no objection to the occupation of Baku by the Allies.

16. Surrender of all garrisons in Hejaz, Assir, Yemen, Syria, and Mesopotamia to the nearest Allied commander; and the withdrawal of troops from Cilicia, except those necessary to maintain order, as will be determined under Clause 5.

17. Surrender of all Turkish officers in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica to the nearest Italian garrison. Turkey guarantees to stop supplies and communications with these officers if they do not obey the order to surrender.

18. Surrender of all ports occupied in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, including Misurata, to the nearest Allied garrison.

19. All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, and civilian, to be evacuated within one month from Turkish dominions: those in remote districts as soon after as may be possible.

20. Compliance with such orders as may be conveyed for the disposal of the equipment, arms and ammunition, includ­ing transport, of that portion of the Turkish Army which is demobilised under Clause 5.

21. An allied representative to be attached to the Turkish Ministry of Supplies in order to safeguard Allied interests. This representative to be furnished with all information necessary for this purpose.

22. Turkish prisoners to be kept at the disposal of the Allied Powers. The release of Turkish civilian prisoners and prisoners over military age to be considered.

23. Obligation on the part of Turkey to cease all relations with the Central Powers.

24. In case of disorder in the six Armenian vilayets, the Allies reserve to themselves the right to occupy any part of them.

25. Hostilities between the Allies and Turkey shall cease from noon, local time, on Thursday, October 31, 1918.

Signed in duplicate on board His Britannic Majesty’s Ship Agamemnon, at Port Mudros,
Lemnos, the 30th October, 1918.

(Signed) Arthur Calthorpe
Hussein Raouf
Rechad Hikmet
Saadullah

The Treaty of Sévres, which was signed on August 10, 1920, liquidated the Ottoman Empire and virtually abolished Turkish sovereignty, followed in the main the decisions reached at the Conference of San Remo. Turkey renounced sovereignty over Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and the kingdom of Hejaz.  Turkey retained Anatolia but İzmir and its environs were placed under Greek administration pending a plebiscite to determine its permanent status. In Europe, Turkey ceded parts of East Thrace and certain Aegean islands to Greece, and the Dodecanese and Rhodes to Italy, retaining only Istanbul and its environs, including the Zone of the Straits, which was neutralized and internationalized. The Allies further obtained virtual control over the Turkish economy. The treaty was accepted by the Ottoman government but was rejected by the national movement of Mustafa Kemal. Following the War of Liberation, the terms of Sèvres were annuled in Turkey’s favor by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
 
 
THE TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS AND TURKEY SIGNED AT SÈVRES AUGUST 10, 1920
 
THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY AND JAPAN,
 
These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied Powers;
 
ARMENIA, BELGIUM, GREECE, THE HEDJAZ, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE AND CZECHO-SLOVAKIA,
 
These Powers constituting, with the Principal Powers mentioned above, the Allied Powers, of the one part;
 
AND TURKEY,
 
of the other part;
 
Whereas on the request of the Imperial Ottoman Government an Armistice was granted to Turkey on October 30, 1918, by the Principal Allied Powers in order that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded, and
 
Whereas the Allied Powers are equally desirous that the war in which certain among them were successively involved, directly or indirectly, against Turkey, and which originated in the declaration of war against Serbia on July 28, I914, by the former Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government, and in the hostilities opened by Turkey against the Allied Powers on October 29, 1914, and conducted by Germany in alliance with Turkey, should be replaced by a firm, just and durable Peace,
 
For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND TIIE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA:
Sir George Dixon GRAHAME, K. C. V. O., Minister Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris;
 
for the DOMINION of CANADA:
The Honourable Sir George Halsey PERLEY, K.C. M. G
High Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom;
 
for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA:
The Right Honourable Andrew FISHER, High Commissioner for Australia in the United Kingdom;
 
for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND:
Sir George Dixon GRAHAME, K. C. V. O., Minister Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris;
 
for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA:
Mr. Reginald Andrew BLANKENBERG, O. B. E., Acting High Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in the United Kingdom;
 
for INDIA:
Sir Arthur HIRTZEL, K. C. B., Assistant Under Secretary of State for India;
 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC:
Mr. Alexandre MILLERAND, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign Affairs
Mr. Frederic FRANÇOIS-MARSAL, Minister of Finance
Mr. Auguste Paul-Louis ISAAC, Minister of Commerce and Industry;
Mr. Jules CAMBON, Ambassador of France
Mr. Georges Maurice PALÉOLOGUE, Ambassador of France, Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
 
Hls MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY:
Count LELIO BONIN LONGARE, Senator of the Kingdom
 
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Italy at Paris
General Giovanni MARIETTI, Italian Military Representative on the Supreme War Council;
 
Hls MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN:
Viscount CHINDA, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at London;
Mr. K. MATSUI, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris;
 
 
ARMENIA:
Mr. Avetis AHARONIAN, President of the Delegation of the Armenian Republic;
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS:
Mr. Jules VAN DEN HEUVEL, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Minister of State;
Mr. ROLIN JAEQUEMYNS, Member of the Institute of Private International Law, Secretary-General of the Belgian Delegation;
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES:
Mr. Eleftherios K. VENIZELOS, President of the Council of Ministers;
Mr. Athos ROMANOS, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of the Hellenes at Paris;
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HEDJAZ:
 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE POLISH REPUBLIC:
Count Maurice ZAMOYSKI, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Polish Republic at Paris;
Mr. Erasme PILTZ;
 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC:
Dr. Affonso da COSTA, formerly President of the Council of Ministers;
 
His MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA:
Mr. Nicolae TITULESCU, Minister of Finance;
 
Prince DIMITRIE GHIKA, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Roumania at Paris;
 
Hls MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS AND THE SLOVENES:
 
 
Mr. Nicolas P. PACHITCH, formerly President of the Council of Ministers;
Mr. Ante TRUMBIC, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CZECHO-SLOVAK REPUBLIC:
Mr. Edward BENES, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
Mr. Stephen OSUSKY, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Czecho-Slovak Republic at London;
 
TURKEY:
General HAADI Pasha, Senator;
RIZA TEVFIK Bey, Senator;
RECHAD HALISS Bey, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Turkey at Berne;
 
WHO, having communicated their full powers, found in good and due form, have AGREED AS FOLLOWS:
 
From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war will terminate.
 
From that moment and subject to the provisions of the present Treaty, officiai relations will exist between the Allied Powers and Turkey.
 
PART I.
THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
ARTICLES 1 TO 26 AND ANNEX
See Part I, Treaty of Versailles, Pages 10-23.
 
PART II.
FRONTIERS OF TURKEY.
ARTICLE 27.
 
I. In Europe, the frontiers of Turkey will be laid down as follows:
1. The Black Sea: from the entrance of the Bosphorus to the point described below.
 
2. With Greece:
From a point to be chosen on the Black Sea near the mouth of the Biyuk Dere, situated about 7 kilometres north-west of Podima, south-westwards to the most north-westerly point of the limit of the basin of the Istranja Dere (about 8 kilometres northwest of Istranja), a line to be fixed on the ground passing through Kapilja Dagh and Uchbunar Tepe;
thence south-south-eastwards to a point to be chosen on the railway from Chorlu to Chatalja about 1 kilometre west of the railway station of Sinekli, a line following as far as possible the western limit of the basin of the Istranja Dere;
thence south-eastwards to a point to be chosen between Fener and Kurfali on the watershed between the basins of those rivers which flow into Biyuk Chekmeje Geul, on the north-east, and the basin of those rivers which flow direct into the Sea of Marmora on the south-west, a line to be fixed on the ground passing south of Sinekli;
thence south-eastwards to a point to be chosen on the Sea of Marmora about 1 kilometre south-west of Kalikratia, a line following as far as possible this watershed.
 
3. The Sea of Marmora:
from the point defined above to the entrance of the Bosphorus.
 
II. In Asia, the frontiers of Turkey will be laid down as follows:
1. On the West and South:
From the entrance of the Bosphorus into the Sea of Marmora to a point described below, situated in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Alexandretta near Karatash Burun the Sea of Marmora, the Dardanelles, and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea; the islands of the Sea of Marmora, and those which are situated within a distance of 3 miles from the coast, remaining Turkish, subject to the provisions of Section IV and Articles 84 and 122, Part III (Political Clauses).
 
2. With Syria:
From a point to be chosen on the eastern bank of the outlet of the Hassan Dede, about 3 kilometres north-west of Karatash Bu- run, north-eastwards to a point to be chosen on the Djaihun Irmak about 1 kilometre north of Babeli, a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Karatash; thence to Kesik Kale, the course of the Djaihun Irmak upstream;
thence north-eastwards to a point to be chosen on the Djaihun Irmak about 15 kilometres east-southeast of Karsbazar, a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Kara Tepe;
thence to the bend in the Djaihun Irmak situated west of Duldul Dagh, the course of the Djaihun Irmak upstream;
thence in a general south-easterly direction to a point to be chosen on Emir Musi Dagh about 15 kilometres south-south-west of Giaour Geul a line to be fixed on the ground at a distance of about 18 kilometres from the railway, and leaving Duldul Dagh to Syria;
thence eastwards to a point to be chosen about 5 kilometres north of Urfa a generally straight line from west to east to be hxed on the ground passing north of the roads connecting the towns of Bagh- che, Aintab, Biridjik, and Urfa and leaving the last three named towns to Syria;
thence eastwards to the south-western extremity of the bend in the Tigris about 6 kilometres north of Azekh (27 kilometres west of Djezire-ibn-Omar), a generally straight line from west to east to be fixed on the ground leaving the town of Mardin to Syria;
thence to a point to be chosen on the Tigris between the point of confluence of the Khabur Su with the Tigris and the bend in the Tigris situated about 10 kilometres north of this point,
the course of the Tigris downstream, leaving the island on which is situated the town of Djezire-ibn-Omar to Syria.
 
3. With Mesopotamia:
Thence in a general easterly direction to a point to be chosen on the northern boundary of the vilayet of Mosul,
a line to be fixed on the ground;
thence eastwards to the point where it meets the frontier between Turkey and Persia,
the northern boundary of the vilayet of Mosul, modified, however, so as to pass south of Amadia.
 
4. On the East and the North East:
From the point above defined to the Black Sea, the existing frontier between Turkey and Persia, then the former frontier between Turkey and Russia, subject to the provisions of Article 89.
 
5. The Black Sea.
ARTICLE 28.
The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced on the one in a million maps attached to the present Treaty. In case of differences between the text and the map, the text will prevail. [See Introduction.]
 
ARTICLE 29.
 
Boundary Commissions, whose composition is or will be fixed in the present Treaty or in Treaties supplementary thereto, will have to trace these frontiers on the ground.
 
They shall have the power, not only of fixing those portions which are defined as “a line to be fixed on the ground,” but also, if the Commission considers it necessary, of revising in matters of detail portions defined by administrative boundaries or otherwise. They shall endeavour in all cases to follow as nearly as possible the descriptions given in the Treaties, taking into account, as far as possible, administrative boundaries and local economic interests.
 
The decisions of the Commissions will be taken by a majority, and shall be binding on the parties concerned.
 
The expenses of the Boundary Commissions will be borne in equal shares by the parties concerned.
 
ARTICLE 30.
 
In so far as frontiers defined by a waterway are concerned, the phrases “course” or “channel” used in the descriptions of the present Treaty signify, as regards non-navigable rivers, the median line of the waterway or of its principal branch, and, as regards navigable rivers, the median line of the principal channel of navigation. It will rest with the Boundary Commissions provided for by the present Treaty to specify whether the frontier line shall follow any changes of the course or channel which may take place, or whether it shall be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the time when the present Treaty comes into force.
 
In the absence of provisions to the contrary in the present Treaty, islands and islets Iying within three miles of the coast are included within the frontier of the coastal State.
 
ARTICLE 31.
 
The various States concerned undertake to furnish to the Commissions all documents necessary for their tasks, especially authentic copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large scale maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpublished, and information concerning the changes of frontier watercourses. The maps, geodetic data, and surveys, even if unpublished, which are in the possession of the Turkish authorities must be delivered at Constantinople, within thirty days from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to such representative of the Commissions concerned as may be appointed by the principal Allied Powers.
 
The States concerned also undertake to instruct the local authorities to communicate to the Commissions all documents, especially plans, cadastral and land books, and to furnish on demand all details regarding property, existing economic conditions, and other necessary information.
 
ARTICLE 32.
 
The various States interested undertake to give every assistance to the Boundary Commissions, whether directly or through local authorities, in everything that concerns transport, accommodation, labour, materials (sign-posts, boundary pillars) necessary for the accomplishment of their mission.
 
In particular the Turkish Government undertakes to furnish to the Principal Allied Powers such technical personnel as they may consider necessary to assist the Boundary Commissions in the accomplishment of their mission.
 
ARTICLE 33.
 
The various States interested undertake to safeguard the trigonometrical points, signals, posts or frontier marks erected by the Commissions.
 
ARTICLE 34
 
The pillars will be placed so as to be intervisible; they will be numbered, and their position and their number will be noted on a cartographic document.
 
ARTICLE 35.
 
The protocols defining the boundary and the maps and documents attached thereto will be made out in triplicate, of which two copies will be forwarded to the Governments of the limitrophe States, and the third to the Government of the French Republic, which will deliver authentic copies to the Powers who sign the present Treaty.
 
 
PART III.
 
POLITICAL CLAUSES.
SECTION I.
CONSTANTINOPLE.
ARTICLE 36.
 
Subject to the provisions of the present Treaty, the High Contracting Parties agree that the rights and title of the Turkish Government over Constantinople shall not be affected, and that the said Government and His Majesty the Sultan shall be entitled to reside there and to maintain there the capital of the Turkish State. 
 
Nevertheless, in the event of Turkey failing to observe faithfully the provisions of the present Treaty, or of any treaties or conventions supplementary thereto, particularly as regards the protection of the rights of racial, religious or linguistic minorities, the Allied Powers expressly reserve the right to modify the above provisions, and Turkey hereby agrees to accept any dispositions which may be taken in this connection.
 
SECTION I I .
 
STRAITS.
 
ARTICLE 37.
 
The navigation of the Straits, including the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora and the Bosphorus, shall in future be open, both in peace and war, to every vessel of commerce or of war and to military and commercial aircraft, without distinction of flag.
 
These waters shall not be subject to blockade, nor shall any belligerent right be exercised nor any act of hostility be committed within them, unless in pursuance of a decision of the Council of the League of Nations.
 
ARTICLE 33.
 
The Turkish Government recognises that it is necessary to take further measures to ensure the freedom of navigation provided for in Article 37, and accordingly delegates, so far as it is concerned, to a Commission to be called the “Commission of the Straits,” and hereinafter referred to as ‘the Commission,” the control of the waters specified in Article 39.
 
The Greek Government, so far as it is concerned, delegates to the Commission the same powers and undertakes to give it in all respects the same facilities.
 
Such control shall be exercised in the name of the Turkish and Greek Governments respectively, and in the manner provided in this Section.
 
ARTICLE 39.
 
The authority of the Commission will extend to all the waters between the Mediterranean mouth of the Dardanelles and the Black Sea mouth of the Bosphorus, and to the waters within three miles of each of these mouths.
 
This authority may be exercised on shore to such extent as may be necessary for the execution of the provisions of this Section.
 
ARTICLE 40.
 
The Commission shall be composed of representatives appointed respectively by the United States of America (if and when that Government is willing to participate), the British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Russia (if and when Russia becomes a member of the League of Nations), Greece, Roumania, and Bulgaria and Turkey (if and when the two latter States become members of the League of Nations). Each Power shall appoint one representative. The representatives of the United States of America, the British Empire, France, Italy, Japan and Russia shall each have two votes. The representatives of Greece, Roumania, and Bulgaria and Turkey shall each have one vote. Each Commissioner shall be removable only by the Government which appointed him.
 
ARTICLE 41.
 
The Commissioners shall enjoy, within the limits specified in Article 39, diplomatic privileges and immunities.
 
ARTICLE 42.
 
The Commission will exercise the powers conferred on it by the present Treaty in complete independence of the local author ity. It will have its own flag, its own budget and its separate organisation.
 
ARTICLE 43.
 
Within the limits of its jurisdiction as laid down in Article 39 the Commission will be charged with the following duties:
 
(a) the execution of any works considered necessary for the improvement of the channels or the approaches to harbours;
(b) the lighting and buoying of the channels;
(c) the control of pilotage and towage;
(d) the control of anchorages;
(e) the control necessary to assure the application in the ports
 
of Constantinople and Haidar Pasha of the regime prescribed in Articles 335 to 344, Part XI (Ports, Waterways and Railways) of the present Treaty;
(f) the control of all matters relating to wrecks and salvage;
(g) the control of lighterage;
 
ARTICLE 44.
 
In the event of the Commission finding that the liberty of passage is being interfered with, it will inform the representatives at Constantinople of the Allied Powers providing the occupying forces provided for in Article 178. These representatives will thereupon concert with the naval and military commanders of the said forces such measures as may be deemed necessary to preserve the freedom of the Straits. Similar action shall be taken by the said representatives in the event of any external action threatening the liberty of passage of the Straits.
 
ARTICLE 45.
 
For the purpose of the acquisition of any property or the execution of any permanent works which may be required, the Commission shall be entitled to raise such loans as it may consider necessary. These loans will be secured, so far as possible, on the dues to be levied on the shipping using the Straits, as provided in Article 53.
 
ARTICLE 46.
 
The functions previously exercised by the Constantinople Superior Council of Health and the Turkish Sanitary Administration which was directed by the said Council, and the functions exercised by the National Life-boat Service of the Bosphorus will within the limits specified in Article 39 be discharged under the control of the Commission and in such manner as it may direct.
 
The Commission will co-operate in the execution of any common policy adopted by the League of Nations for preventing and combating disease.
 
ARTICLE 47.
 
Subject to the general powers of control conferred upon the Commission, the rights of any persons or companies now holding concessions relating to lighthouses, docks, quays or similar matters shall be maintained; but the Commission shall be entitled if it thinks it necessary in the general interest to buy out or modify such rights upon the conditions laid down in Article 311 Part IX (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, or itself to take up a new concession.
 
ARTICLE 48.
 
In order to facilitate the execution of the duties with which it is entrusted by this Section, the Commission shall have power to organise such a force of special police as may be necessary. This force shall be drawn so far as possible from the native population of the zone of the Straits and islands referred to in Article 178, Part V (Military, Naval and Air Clauses), excluding the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, Tenedos and Mitylene. The said force shall be commanded by foreign police officers appointed by the Commission.
 
ARTICLE 49.
 
In the portion of the zone of the Straits, including the islands of the Sea of Marmora, which remains Turkish, and pending the coming into force of the reform of the Turkish judicial system provided for in Article I36, all infringements of the regulations and by-laws made by the Commission, committed by nationals of capitulatory Powers, shall be dealt with by the Consular Courts of the said Powers. The Allied Powers agree to make such infringements justiciable before their Consular Courts or authorities. Infringements committed by Turkish nationals or nationals of non-capitulatory Powers shall be dealt with by the competent Turkish judicial authorities.
 
In the portion of the said zone placed under Greek sovereignty such infringements will be dealt with by the competent Greek judicial authorities.
 
ARTICLE 50.
 
The officers or members of the crew of any merchant vessel vwithin the limits of the jurisdiction of the Commission who may be arrested on shore for any offence committed either ashore or afloat within the limits of the said jurisdiction shall be brought before the competent judicial authority by the Commission’s police. If the accused was arrested otherwise than by the Commission’s police he shall immediately be handed over to them.
 
ARTICLE 51 .
 
The Commission shall appoint such subordinate officers or officials as may be found indispensable to assist it in carrying out the duties with which it is charged.
 
ARTICLE 52.
 
In all matters relating to the navigation of the waters within the limits of the jurisdiction of the Commission all the ships referred to in Article 37 shall be treated upon a footing of absolute equality.
 
ARTICLE 53.
 
Subject to the provisions of Article 47 the existing rights under which dues and charges can be levied for various purposes, whether direct by the Turkish Government or by international bodies or private companies, on ships or cargoes within the limits of the jurisdiction of the Commission shall be transferred to the Commisssion The Commission shall fix these dues and charges at such amounts only as may be reasonably necessary to cover the cost of the works executed and the services rendered to shipping, including the general costs and expenses of the administration of the Commission, and the salaries and pay provided for in paragraph 3 of the Annex to this Section.
 
For these purposes only and with the prior consent of the Council of the League of Nations the Commission may also establish dues and charges other than those now existing and fix their amounts.
 
ARTICLE 54.
 
All dues and charges imposed by the Commission shall be levied without any discrimination and on a footing of absolute equality between all vessels, whatever their port of origin, destination or departure, their flag or ownership, or the nationality or ownership of their cargoes.
 
This disposition does not affect the right of the Commission to fix in accordance with tonnage the dues provided for by this Section.
 
ARTICLE 55.
 
The Turkish and Greek Governments respectively undertake to facilitate the acquisition by the Commission of such land and buildings as the Commission shall consider it necessary to acquire in order to carry out effectively the duties with which it is entrusted.
 
ARTICLE 56.
 
Ships of war in transit through the waters specified in Article 39 shall conform in all respects to the regulations issued by the Commission for the observance of the ordinary rules of navigation and of sanitary requirements.
 
ARTICLE 57.
 
(1) Belligerent warships shall not revictual nor take in stores except so far as may be strictly necessary to enable them to complete the passage of the Straits and to reach the nearest port where they can call, nor shall they replenish or increase their supplies of war material or their armament or complete their crews, within the waters under the control of the Commission. Only such repairs as are absolutely necessary to render them seaworthy shall be carried out, and they shall not add in any manner whatever to their fighting force. The Commission shall decide what repairs are necessary, and these must be carried out with the least possible delay.
 
(2) The passage of belligerent warships through the waters under the control of the Commission shall be effected with the least possible delay, and without any other interruption than that resulting from the necessities of the service.
 
(3) The stay of such warships at ports within the jurisdiction of the Commission shall not exceed twenty-four hours except in case of distress. In such case they shall be bound to leave as soon as possible. An interval of at least twenty-four hours shall always elapse between the sailing of a belligerent ship from the waters under the control of the Commission and the departure of a ship belonging to an opposing belligerent.
 
(4) Any further regulations affecting in time of war the waters under the control of the Commission, and relating in particular to the passage of war material and contraband destined for the enemies of Turkey, or revictualling, taking in stores or carrying out repairs in the said waters, will be laid down by the League of Nations.
 
ARTICLE 58.
 
Prizes shall in all respects be subjected to the same conditions as belligerent vessels of war.
 
ARTICLE 59.
 
No belligerent shall embark or disembark troops, munitions of war or warlike materials in the waters under the control of the Commission, except in case of accidental hindrance of the passage, and in such cases the passage shall be resumed with all possible despatch.
 
ARTICLE 60.
 
Nothing in Articles 57, 58 or 59 shall be deemed to limit the powers of a belligerent or belligerents acting in pursuance of a decision by the Council of the League of Nations.
 
ARTICLE 61.
 
Any differences which may arise between the Powers as to the interpretation or execution of the provisions of this Section, and as regards Constantinople and Haidar Pasha of the provisions of Articles 335 to 344, Part Xl (Ports, Waterways, and Railways) shall be referred to the Commission. In the event of the decision of the Commission not being accepted by any Power, the question shall, on the demand of any Power concerned, be settled as provided by the League of Nations, pending whose decision the ruling of the Commission will be carried out.
 
ANNEX
 
1.
 
The Chairmanship of the Commission of the Straits shall be rotatory for the period of two years among the members of the Commission entitled to two votes.
 
The Commission shall take decisions by a majority vote and the Chairman shall have a casting vote. Abstention shall be regarded as a vote against the proposal under discussion.
 
Each of the Commissioners will have the right to designate a deputy Commissioner to replace him in his absence.
 
2
 
The salary of each member of the Commission will be paid by the Government which appointed him; these salaries will be fixed at reasonable amounts agreed upon from time to time between the Governments represented on the Commission.
 
3
 
The salaries of the police officers referred to in Article 48, of such other officials and officers as may be appointed under Article 51, and the pay of the local police referred to in Article 48, shall be paid out of the receipts from the dues and charges levied on shipping.
 
The Commission shall frame regulations as to the terms and condltions of employment of all officers and officials appointed
 
4
 
The Commission shall have at its disposal such vessels as may be necessary to enable it to carry out its functions as laid down in this Section and Annex.
 
5
 
In order to carry out all the duties with which it is charged by the provisions of this Section and Annex and within the limits therein laid down the Commission will have the power to prepare, issue and enforce the necessary regulations; this power will include the right of amending so far as may be necessary or repealing the existing regulations.
 
6. 
 
The Commission shall frame regulations as to the manner in which the accounts of all revenues and expenditure of the funds under its control shall be kept, the auditing of such accounts and the publication every year of a full and accurate report thereof.
 
SECTION III.
KURDISTAN.
ARTICLE 62.
 
A Commission sitting at Constantinople and composed of three members appointed by the British, French and Italian Governments respectively shall draft within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty a scheme of local autonomy for the predominantly Kurdish areas lying east of the Euphrates, south of the southern boundary of Armenia as it may be hereafter determined, and north of the frontier of Turkey with Syria and Mesopotamia, as defined in Article 27, II (2) and (3). If unanimity cannot be secured on any question, it will be referred by the members of the Commission to their respective Governments. The scheme shall contain full safeguards for the protection of the Assyro-Chaldeans and other racial or religious minorities within these areas, and with this object a Commission composed of British, French, Italian, Persian and Kurdish representatives shall visit the spot to examine and decide what rectifications, if any, should be made in the Turkish frontier where, under the provisions of the present Treaty, that frontier coincides with that of Persia.
 
ARTICLE 63.
 
The Turkish Government hereby agrees to accept and execute the decisions of both the Commissions mentioned in Article 62 within three months from their communication to the said Government.
 
ARTICLE 64.
 
If within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty the Kurdish peoples within the areas defined in Article 62 shall address themselves to the Council of the League of Nations in such a manner as to show that a majority of the population of these areas desires independence from Turkey, and if the Council then considers that these peoples are capable of such independence and recommends that it should be granted to them, Turkey hereby agrees to execute such a recommendation, and to renounce all rights and title over these areas.
 
The detailed provisions for such renunciation will form the subject of a separate agreement between the Principal Allied Powers and Turkey.
 
If and when such renunciation takes place, no objection will be raised by the Principal Allied Powers to the voluntary adhesion to such an independent Kurdish State of the Kurds inhabiting that part of Kurdistan which has hitherto been included in the Mosul vilayet.
 
SECTION IV.
SMYRNA.
ARTICLE 65.
 
The provisions of this Section will apply to the city of Smyrna and the adjacent territory defined in Article 66, until the determination of their final status in accordance with Article 83.
 
ARTICLE 66.
 
The geographical limits of the territory adjacent to the city of Smyrna will be laid down as follows:
 
From the mouth of the river which flows into the Aegean Sea about 5 kilometres north of Skalanova, eastwards,
the course of this river upstream;
then south-eastwards, the course of the southern branch of this river;
then south-eastwards, to the western point of the crest of the Gumush Dagh;
A line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Chinar K, and east of Akche Ova;
thence north-eastwards, this crest line;
thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the railway from Ayasoluk to Deirmendik about 1 kilometre west of Balachik station,
a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the road and railway from Sokia to Balachik station entirely in Turkish territory;
thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the southern boundary of the Sandjak of Smyrna,
a line to be fixed on the ground;
thence to a point to be chosen in the neighbourhood of Bos Dagh situated about 15 kilometres north-east of Odemish,
the southern and eastern boundary of the Sandjak of Smyrna;
thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the railway from Manisa to Alashehr about 6 kilometres west of Salihli,
a line to be fixed on the ground;
thence northwards to Geurenez Dagh,
a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Mermer Geul west of Kemer, crossing the Kum Chai approximately south of Akshalan, and then following the watershed west of Kavakalan;
thence north-westwards to a point to be chosen on the boundary between the Cazas of Kirkagach and Ak Hissar about 18 kilometres east of Kirkagach and 20 kilometres north of Ak Hissar,
a line to be fixed on the ground;
thence westwards to its junction with the boundary of the Caza of Soma,
the southern boundary of the Caza of Kirkagach,
thence westwards to its junction with the boundary of the Sandjak of Smyrna,
the southern boundary of the Caza of Soma;
thence northwards to its junction with the boundary of the vilayet of Smyrna,
the north-eastern boundary of the Sandjak of Smyrna;
thence westwards to a point to be chosen in the neighbourhood
 
of Charpajik (Tepe).
the northern boundary of the vilayet of Smyrna;
thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the ground about 4 kilometres southwest of Keuiluje,
a line to be fixed on the ground;
thence westwards to a point to be selected on the ground between Cape Dahlina and Kemer Iskele,
a line to be fixed on the ground passing south of Kemer and Kemer Iskele together with the road joining these places.
 
ARTICLE 67.
 
A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the boundaries of the territories described in Article 66. This Commission shall be composed of three members nominated by the British, French and Italian Governments respectively, one member nominated by the Greek Government, and one nominated by the Turkish Government.
 
ARTICLE 68.
 
Subject to the provisions of this Section, the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 will be assimilated, in the application of the present Treaty, to territory detached from Turkey.
 
ARTICLE 69
 
The city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 remain under Turkish sovereignty. Turkey, however, transfers to the Greek Government the exercise of her rights of sovereignty over the city of Smyrna and the said territory. In witness of such sovereignty the Turkish flag shall remain permanently hoisted over an outer fort in the town of Smyrna. The fort will be designated by the Principal Allied Powers.
 
ARTICLE 70.
 
The Greek Government will be responsible for the administration of the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66, and will effect this administration by means of a body of officials which it will appoint specially for the purpose.
 
ARTICLE 71.
 
The Greek Government shall be entitled to maintain in the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 the military forces required for the maintenance of order and public security. 
 
ARTICLE 72.
 
A local parliament shall be set up with an electoral system calculated to ensure proportional representation of all sections of the population, including racial, linguistic and religious minorities. Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the Greek Government shall submit to the Council of the League of Nations a scheme for an electoral system complying with the above requirements; this scheme shall not come into force until approved by a majority of the Council.
 
The Greek Government shall be entitled to postpone the elections for so long as may be required for the return of the inhabitants who have been banished or deported by the Turkish authorities, but such postponement shall not exceed a period of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 73.
 
The relations between the Greek administration and the local parliament shall be determined by the said administration in accordance with the principles of the Greek Constitution.
 
ARTICLE 74.
 
Compulsory military service shall not be enforced in the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 pending the final determination of their status in accordance with Article 83.
 
ARTICLE 75.
 
The provisions of the separate Treaty referred to in Article 86 relating to the protection of racial, linguistic and religious minorities, and to freedom of commerce and transit, shall be applicable to the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66.
 
ARTICLE 76.
 
The Greek Government may establish a Customs boundary along the frontier line defined in Article 66, and may incorporate the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in the said Article in the Greek customs system.
 
ARTICLE 77.
 
The Greek Government engages to take no measures which would have the effect of depreciating the existing Turkish currency, which shall retain its character as legal tender pending the determination, in accordance with the provisions of Article 83, of the final status of the territory.
 
ARTICLE 78.
 
The provisions of Part XI (Ports, Waterways and Railways) relating to the regime of ports of international interest, free ports and transit shall be applicable to the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66.
 
ARTICLE 79.
 
As regards nationality, such inhabitants of the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 as are of Turkish nationality and cannot claim any other nationality under the terms of the present Treaty shall be treated on exactly the same footing as Greek nationals. Greece shall provide for their diplomatic and consular protection abroad.
 
ARTICLE 80.
 
The provisions of Article 24I, Part VIII (Financial Clauses) will apply in the case of the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66.
 
The provisions of Article 293, Part IX (Economic Clauses) will not be applicable in the case of the said city and territory.
 
ARTICLE 8I.
 
Until the determination, in accordance with the provisions of Article 83, of the final status of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66, the rights to exploit the salt marshes of Phocea belonging to the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, including all plant and machinery and materials for transport by land or sea, shall not be altered or interfered with. No tax or charge shall be imposed during this period on the manufacture, exportation or transport of salt produced from these marshes. The Greek administration will have the right to regulate and tax the consumption of salt at Symrna and within the territory defined in Article 66. 
 
If after the expiration of the period referred to in the preceding paragraph Greece considers it opportuhe to effect changes in the provisions above set forth, the salt marshes of Phocea will be treated as a concession and the guarantees provided by Article 312, Part IX (Economic Clauses) will apply, subject, however, to the provisions of Article 246, Part VIII (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 82.
 
Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise from the execution of the provisions of this Section.
 
ARTICLE 83.
 
When a period of five years shall have elapsed after the coming into force of the present Treaty the local parliament referred to in Article 72 may, by a majority of votes, ask the Council of the League of Nations for the definitive incorporation in the King dom of Greece of the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66. The Council may require, as a preliminary, a plebiscite under conditions which it will lay down.
 
In the event of such incorporation as a result of the application of the foregoing paragraph, the Turkish sovereignty referred to in Article 69 shall cease. Turkey hereby renounces in that event in favour of Greece all rights and title over the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66.
 
SECTION V.
 
GREECE.
 
ARTICLE 84.
 
Without prejudice to the frontiers of Bulgaria laid down by the Treaty of Peace signed at Neuilly-sur-Seine on November 27, 1919, Turkey renounces in favour of Greece all rights and title over the territories of the former Turkish Empire in Europe situated outside the frontiers of Turkey as laid down by the present Treaty.
 
The islands of the Sea of Marmora are not included in the transfer of sovereignty effected by the above paragraph.
 
Turkey further renounces in favour of Greece all her rights and title over the islands of Imbros and Tenedos. The decision taken by the Conference of Ambassadors at London in execution of Articles 5 of the Treaty of London of May 17-30, 1913, and 15 of the Treaty of Athens of November 1-14, 1913, and notified to the Greek Govermnent on February 13, 1914, relating to the sovereignty of Greece over the other islands of the Eastern Mediterranean, particularly Lemnos, Samothrace, Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria, is confirmed, without prejudice to the provisions of the present Treaty relating to the islands placed under the sovereignty of Italy and referred to in Article 122, and to the islands lying less than three miles fron the coast of Asia.
 
Nevertheless, in the portion of the zone of the Straits and the islands, referred to in Article 178, which under the present Treaty are placed under Greek sovereignty, Greece accepts and undertakes to observe, failing any contrary stipulation in the present Treaty, all the obligations which, in order to assure the freedom of the Straits, are imposed by the present Treaty on Turkey in that portion of the said zone, including the islands of the Sea of Marmora, which remains under Turkish sovereignty.
 
ARTICLE 85.
 
A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line described in Article 27, 1 (2). This Commission shall be composed of four members nominated by the Principal Allied Powers, one member nominated by Greece, and one member nominated by Turkey.
 
ARTICLE 86.
 
Greece accepts and agrees to embody in a separate Treaty such provisions as may be deemed necessary, particularly as regards Adrianople, to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who differ from the majority of the population in race, language or religion.
 
Greece further accepts and agrees to embody in a separate Treaty such provisions as may be deemed necessary to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of other nations.
 
ARTICLE 87.
 
The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Turkey which Greece will have to assume on account of the territory placed under her sovereignty will be determined in accordance with Articles 241 to 244, Part VIII (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.
 
Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of the transfer of the said territories.
 
SECTION VI.
 
ARMENIA.
ARTICLE 88.
 
Turkey, in accordance with the action already taken by the Allied Powers, hereby recognises Armenia as a free and independent State.
 
ARTICLE 89.
 
Turkey and Armenia as well as the other High Contracting Parties agree to submit to the arbitration of the President of the United States of America the question of the frontier to be fixed between Turkey and Armenia in the vilayets of Erzerum, Trebizond, Van and Bitlis, and to accept his decision thereupon, as well as any stipulations he may prescribe as to access for Armenia to the sea, and as to the demilitarisation of any portion of Turkish territory adjacent to the said frontier.
 
ARTICLE 90.
 
In the event of the determination of the frontier under Article 89 involving the transfer of the whole or any part of the territory of the said Vilayets to Armenia, Turkey hereby renounces as from the date of such decision all rights and title over the territory so transferred. The provisions of the present Treaty applicable to territory detached from Turkey shall thereupon become applicable to the said territory.
 
The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Turkey which Armenia will have to assume, or of the rights which will pass to her, on account of the transfer of the said territory will be determined in accordance with Articles 241 to 244, Part VIII (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.
 
Subsequent agreements will, if necessary, decide all questions which are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of the transfer of the said territory.
 
ARTICLE 91.
 
In the event of any portion of the territory referred to in Article 89 being transferred to Armenia, a Boundary Commission, whose composition will be determined subsequently, will be constituted within three months from the delivery of the decision referred to in the said Article to trace on the spot the frontier between Armenia and Turkey as established by such decision.
 
ARTICLE 92.
 
The frontiers between Armenia and Azerbaijan and Georgia respectively will be determined by direct agreement between the States concerned.
 
If in either case the States concerned have failed to determine the frontier by agreement at the date of the decision referred to in Article 89, the frontier line in question will be determined by the Pricipal Allied Powers, who will also provide for its being traced on the spot.
 
ARTICLE 93.
 
Armenia accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the Principal Allied Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by these Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who differ from the majority of the population in race, language, or religion.
 
Armenia further accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the Principal Allied Powers such provisions as these Powers may deem necessary to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of other nations.
 
SECTION VII.
SYRIA, MESOPOTAMIA, PALESTINE.
ARTICLE 94.
 
The High Contracting Parties agree that Syria and Mesopotamia shall, in accordance with the fourth paragraph of Article 22.
 
Part I (Covenant of the League of Nations), be provisionally recognised as independent States subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone.
 
A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line described in Article 27, II (2) and (3). This Commission will be composed of three members nominated by France, Great Britain and Italy respectively, and one member nominated by Turkey; it will be assisted by a representative of Syria for the Syrian frontier, and by a representative of Mesopotamia for the Mesopotamian frontier.
 
The determination of the other frontiers of the said States, and the selection of the Mandatories, will be made by the Principal Allied Powers.
 
ARTICLE 95.
 
The High Contracting Parties agree to entrust, by application of the provisions of Article 22, the administration of Palestine, within such boundaries as may be determined by the Principal Allied Powers, to a Mandatory to be selected by the said Powers. The Mandatory will be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on November 2, 1917, by the British Government, and adopted by the other Allied Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.
 
The Mandatory undertakes to appoint as soon as possible a special Commission to study and regulate all questions and claims relating to the different religious communities. In the composition of this Commission the religious interests concerned will be taken into account. The Chairman of the Commission will be appointed by the Council of the League of Nations.
 
ARTICLE 96.
 
The terms of the mandates in respect of the above territories will be formulated by the Principal Allied Powers and submitted to the Council of the League of Nations for approval.
 
ARTICLE 97.
 
Turkey hereby undertakes, in accordance with the provisions of Article 132, to accept any decisions which may be taken in relation to the questions dealt with in this Section.
 
SECTION VIII.
HEDJAZ.
ARTICLE 98.
 
Turkey, in accordance with the action already taken by the Allied Powers, hereby recognises the Hedjaz as a free and indepedent State, and renounces in favour of the Hedjaz all rights and titles over the territories of the former Turkish Empire situated outside the frontiers of Turkey as laid down by the present Treaty, and comprised within the boundaries which may ultimately be fixed.
 
ARTICLE 99.
 
In view of the sacred character attributed by Moslems of all countries to the cities and the Holy Places of Mecca and Medina His Majesty the King of the Hedjaz undertakes to assure free and easy access thereto to Moslems of every country who desire to go there on pilgrimage or for any other religious object, and to respect and ensure respect for the pious foundations which are or may be established there by Moslems of any countries in accordance with the precepts of the law of the Koran. 
 
ARTICLE 100.
 
His Majesty the King of the Hedjaz undertakes that in commercial matters the most complete equality of treatment shall be assured in the territory of the Hedjaz to the persons, ships and goods of nationals of any of the Allied Powers, or of any of the new States set up in the territories of the former Turkish Empire, as well as to the persons, ships and goods of nationals of States, Members of the League of Nations.
 
SECTION IX.
 
EGYPT, SOUDAN, CYPRUS.
I. EGYPT.
ARTICLE 101.
 
Turkey renounces all rights and title in or over Egypt. This renunciation shall take effect as from November 5, 1914. Turkey declares that in conformity with the action taken by the Allied Powers she recognises the Protectorate proclaimed over Egypt by Great Britain on December 18, 1914.
 
ARTICLE 102.
 
Turkish subjects habitually resident in Egypt on December 18, 1914, will acquire Egyptian nationality ipso facto and will lose their Turkish nationality, except that if at that date such persons were temporarily absent from, and have not since returned to, Egypt they will not acquire Egyptian nationality without a special authorisation from the Egyptian Government.
 
ARTICLE 103.
 
Turkish subjects who became resident in Egypt after December 18, 1914, and are habitually resident there at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty may, subject to the conditions prescribed in Article 105 for the right of option, claim Egyptian nationality, but such claim may in individual cases be refused by the competent Egyptian authority.
 
ARTICLE 104.
 
For all purposes connected with the present Treaty, Egypt and Egyptian nationals, their goods and vessels, shall be treated on the same footing, as from August I, 1914, as the Allied Powers, their nationals, goods and vessels, and provisions in respect of territory under Turkish sovereignty, or of territory detached from Turkey in accordance with the present Treaty, shall not apply to Egypt.
 
ARTICLE I05.
 
Within a period of one year after the coming into force of the present Treaty persons over eighteen years of age acquiring Egyptian nationality under the provisions of Article 102 will be entitled to opt for Turkish nationality. In case such persons, or those who under Article 103 are entitled to claim Egyptian nationality, differ in race from the majority of the population of Egypt, they will within the same period be entitled to opt for the nationality of any State in favour of which territory is detached from Turkey, if the majority of the population of that State is of the same race as the person exercising the right to opt.
 
Option by a husband covers a wife and option by parents covers their children under eighteen years of age.
 
Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must, except where authorised to continue to reside in Egypt, transfer within the ensuing twelve months their place of residence to the State for which they have opted. They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in Egypt, and may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export or import duties or charges may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.
 
ARTICLE 106.
 
The Egyptian Government shall have complete liberty of action in regulating the status of Turkish subjects in Egypt and the conditions under which they may establish themselves in the territory.
 
ARTICLE 107.
 
Egyptian nationals shall be entitled, when abroad, to British diplonlatic and consular protection.
 
ARTICLE 108.
 
Egyptian goods entering Turkey shall enjoy the treatment accorded to British goods.
 
ARTICLE 109.
 
Turkey renounces in favour of Great Britain the powers conferred upon His Imperial Majesty the Sultan by the Convention signed at Constantinople on October 29, 1888, relating to the free navigation of the Suez Canal.
 
ARTICLE 110.
 
All property and possessions in Egypt belonging to the Turkish Government pass to the Egyptian Government without payment.
 
ARTICLE 111 .
 
All movable and immovable property in Egypt belonging to Turkish nationals (who do not acquire Egyptian nationality) shall be dealt with in aecordance with the provisions of Part IX (Economie Clauses) of the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 112.
 
Turkey renounces all claim to the tribute formerly paid by Egypt.
 
Great Britain undertakes to relieve Turkey of all liability in respect of the Turkish loans secured on the Egyptian tribute.
 
These loans are:
 
The guaranteed loan of 1855;
The loan of 1894 representing the converted loans of 1854 and 1871; 
The loan of 1891 representing the converted loan of 1877.
 
The sums which the Khedives of Egypt have from time to time undertaken to pay over to the houses by which these loans were issued will be applied as heretofore to the interest and the sinking funds of the loans of 1894 and 1891 until the final extinction of those loans. The Government of Egypt will also continue to apply the sum hitherto paid towards the interest on the guaranteed loan of 1855.
 
Upon the extinction of these loans of 1894, 1891 and 1855, all liability on the part of the Egyptian Government arising out of the tribute formerly paid by Egypt to Turkey will cease.
 
2. SOUDAN.
 
ARTICLE 113.
 
The High Contracting Parties declare and place on record that they have taken note of the Convention between the British Government and the Egyptian Government defining the status and regulating the administration of the Soudan, signed on January I9, I899, as amended by the supplementary Convention relating to the town of Suakin signed on July 10, 1899.
 
ARTICLE 114.
 
Soudanese shall be entitled when in foreign countries to British diplomatic and consular protection.
 
3. CYPRUS
 
ARTICLE 115.
 
The High Contracting Parties recognise the annexation of Cyprus proclaimed by the British Government on November 5, 1914.
 
ARTICLE 116.
 
Turkey renounces all rights and title over or relating to Cyprus, including the right to the tribute formerly paid by that island to the Sultan.
 
ARTICLE 117.
 
Turkish nationals born or habitually resident in Cyprus will acquire British nationality and lose their Turkish nationality, subject to the conditions laid down in the local law.
 
 
SECTION X.
 
MOROCCO, TUNIS.
 
ARTICLE 118.
 
Turkey recognises the French Protectorate in Morocco, and accepts all the consequences thereof. This recognition shall take effect as from March 30, 1912.
 
ARTICLE 119.
 
Moroccan goods entering Turkey shall be subject to the same treatment as French goods.
 
ARTICLE 120.
 
Turkey recognises the French Protectorate over Tunis and accepts all the consequences thereof. This recognition shall take effect as from May 12, 1881.
 
Tunisian goods entering Turkey shall be subject to the same treatment as French goods.
 
SECTION XI.
 
LIBYA, AEGEAN ISLANDS.
 
ARTICLE 121.
 
Turkey definitely renounces all rights and privileges which under the Treaty of Lausanne of October 18, 1912, were left to the Sultan in Libya.
 
ARTICLE 122.
 
Turkey renounces in favour of Italy all rights and title over the following islands of the Aegean Sea; Stampalia (Astropalia), Rhodes (Rhodos), Calki (Kharki), Scarpanto, Casos (Casso) Pscopis (Tilos), Misiros (Nisyros), Calymnos (Kalymnos) Leros, Patmos, Lipsos (Lipso), Sini (Symi), and Cos (Kos), which are now occupied by Italy, and the islets dependent thereon, and also over the island of Castellorizzo.
 
SECTION Xll.
 
NATIONALITY.
 
ARTICLE 123.
 
Turkish subjects habitually resident in territory which in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty is detached from Turkey will become ipso facto, in the conditions laid down by the local law, nationals of the State to which such territory is transferred.
 
ARTICLE 124.
 
Persons over eighteen years of age losing their Turkish nationality and obtaining ipso facto a new nationality under Article 123 shall be entitled within a period of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty to opt for Turkish nationality.
 
ARTICLE 125.
 
Persons over eighteen years of age habitually resident in territory detached from Turkey in accordance with the present Treaty and differing in race from the majority of the population of such territory shall within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty be entitled to opt for Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece, the Hedjaz, Mesopotamia, Syria, Bulgaria or Turkey, if the majority of the population of the State selected is of the same race as the person exercising the right to opt.
 
ARTICLE 126.
 
Persons who have exercised the right to opt in accordance with the provisions of Articles 124 or 125 must within the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have opted.
 
They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the territory of the other State where they had their place of residence before exercising their right to opt.
 
They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export or import duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.
 
ARTICLE 127.
 
The High Contracting Parties undertake to put no hindrance in the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have under the present Treaty, or under the Treaties of Peace concluded with Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary or under any treaty concluded by the Allied Powers, or any of them, with Russia, or between any of the Allied Powers themselves, to choose any other nationality which may be open to them.
 
In particular, Turkey undertakes to facilitate by every means in her power the voluntary emigration of persons desiring to avail themselves of the right to opt provided by Article 125, and to carry out any measures which may be prescribed with this object by the Council of the League of Nations.
 
ARTICLE 128.
 
Turkey undertakes to recognise any new nationality which has been or may be acquired by her nationals under the laws of the Allied Powers or new States and in accordance with the decisions of the competent authorities of these Powers pursuant to naturalisation laws or under Treaty stipulations, and to regard such persons as having, in consequence of the acquisition of such new nationality, in all respects severed their allegiance to their country of origin.
 
In particular, persons who before the coming into force of the present Treaty have acquired the nationality of one of the Allied Powers in accordance with the law of such Power shall be recognised by the Turkish Government as nationals of such Power and as having lost their Turkish nationality, notwithstanding any provisions of Turkish law to the contrary. No confiscation of property or other penalty provided by Turkish law shall be incurred on account of the acquisition of any such nationality.
 
ARTICLE 129.
 
Jews of other than Turkish nationality who are habitually resident, on the coming into force of the present Treaty, within the boundaries of Palestine, as determined in accordance with Article 95 will ipso facto become citizens of Palestine to the exclusion of any other nationality.
 
ARTICLE 130.
 
For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of a married woman will be governed by that of her husband and the status of children under eighteen years of age by that of their parents.
 
ARTICLE 131.
 
The provisions of this Section will apply to the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 as from the establishment of the final status of the territory in accordance with Article 83.
 
SECTION XIII.
 
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
 
ARTICLE 132.
 
Outside her frontiers as fixed by the present Treaty Turkey hereby renounces in favour of the Principal Allied Powers all rights and title which she could claim on any ground over or concerning any territories outside Europe which are not otherwise disposed of by the present Treaty.
 
Turkey undertakes to recognise and conform to the measures which may be taken now or in the future by the Principal Allied Powers, in agreement where necessary with third Powers, in order to carry the above stipulation into effect.
 
ARTICLE 133.
 
Turkey undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of Peace and Additional Conventions concluded by the Allied Powers with the Powers who fought on the side of Turkey, and to recognise whatever dispositions have been or may be made concerning the territories of the former German Empire, of Austria, of Hungary and of Bulgaria, and to recognise the new States within their frontiers as there laid down.
 
ARTICLE 134.
 
Turkey hereby recognises and accepts the frontiers of Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and the Czecho-Slovak State as these frontiers may be determined by the Treaties referred to in Article 133 or by any supplementary conventions. 
 
ARTICLE 135.
 
Turkey undertakes to recognise the full force of all treaties or agreements which may be entered into by the Allied Powers with States now existing or coming into existence in future in the whole or part of the former Empire of Russia as it existed on August 1, 1914, and to recognise the frontiers of any such States as determined therein.
 
Turkey acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and inalienable the independence of the said States.
 
In accordance with the provisions of Article 259, Part VIII (Financial Clauses), and Article 277, Part IX (Economic Clauses), of the present Treaty, Turkey accepts definitely the abrogation of the Brest-Litovsk Treaties and of all treaties conventions and agreements entered into by her with the Maximalist Government in Russia.
 
ARTICLE 136.
 
A Commission composed of four members, appointed by the British Empire, France, Italy and Japan respectively, shall be set up within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to prepare, with the assistance of technical experts representing the other capitulatory Powers, Allied or neutral, who with this object will each be invited to appoint an expert, a scheme of judicial reform to replace the present capitulatory system in judicial matters in Turkey. This Commission may recommend, after consultation with the Turkish Government, the adoption of either a mixed or an unified judicial system.
 
The scheme prepared by the Commission will be submitted to the Governments of the Allied and neutral Powers concerned. As soon as the Principal Allied Powers have approved the scheme they will inform the Turkish Government, which hereby agrees to accept the new system.
 
The Principal Allied Powers reserve the right to agree among themselves, and if necessary with the other Allied or neutral Powers concerned, as to the date on which the new system is to come into force.
 
ARTICLE 137.
 
Without prejudice to the provisions of Part VII (Penalties), no inhabitant of Turkey shall be disturbed or molested, under any pretext whatever, on account of any political or military action taken by him, or any assistance of any kind given by him to the Allied Powers, or their nationals, between August 1, 1914, and the coming into force of the present Treaty; all sentences pronounced against any inhabitant of Turkey for the above reasons shall be completely annulled, and any proceedings already instituted shall be arrested.
 
ARTICLE 138.
 
No inhabitant of territory detached from Turkey in accordance with the present Treaty shall be disturbed or molested on account of his political attitude after August 1, 1914, or of the determination of his nationality effected in accordance with the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 139.
 
Turkey renounces formally all rights of suzerainty or jurisdiction of any kind over Moslems who are subject to the sovereignty or protectorate of any other State.
 
No power shall be exercised directly or indirectly by any Turkish authority whatever in any territory detached from Turkey or of which the existing status under the present Treaty is recognised by Turkey.
 
PART IV.
 
PROTECTION OF MINORITIES.
 
ARTICLE 140.
 
Turkey undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 141, I45 and I47 shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no civil or military law or regulation, no Imperial Iradeh nor official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation, Imperial Iradeh nor official action prevail over them.
 
ARTICLE 141.
 
Turkey undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Turkey without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.
 
All inhabitants of Turkey shall be entitled to the free exercise, whether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief.
 
The penalties for any interference with the free exercise of the right referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be the same whatever may be the creed concerned.
 
ARTICLE 142.
 
Whereas, in view of the terrorist regime which has existed in Turkey since November 1, 1914, conversions to Islam could not take place under normal conditions, no conversions since that date are recognised and all persons who were non-Moslems before November 1, 1914, will be considered as still remaining such, unless, after regaining their liberty, they voluntarily perform the necessary formalities for embracing the Islamic faith.
 
In order to repair so far as possible the wrongs inflicted on individuals in the course of the massacres perpetrated in Turkey during the war, the Turkish Government undertakes to afford all the assistance in its power or in that of the Turkish authorities in the search for and deliverance of all persons, of whatever race or religion, who have disappeared, been carried off, interned or placed in captivity since November 1, 1914.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to facilitate the operations of mixed commissions appointed by the Council of the League of Nations to receive the complaints of the victims themselves, their families or their relations, to make the necessary enquiries, and to order the liberation of the persons in question.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to ensure the execution
 
of the decisions of these commissions, and to assure the security and the liberty of the persons thus restored to the full enjoyment of their rights.
 
ARTICLE 143
 
Turkey undertakes to recognise such provisions as the Allied Powers may consider opportune with respect to the reciprocal and voluntary emigration of persons belonging to racial minorities.
 
Turkey renounces any right to avail herself of the provisions of Article I6 of the Convention between Greece and Bulgaria relating to reciprocal emigration, signed at Neuilly-sur-Seine on November 27, 19l9. Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, Greece and Turkey will enter into a special arrangement relating to the reciprocal and voluntary emigration of the populations of Turkish and Greek race in the territories transferred to Greece and remaining Turkish respectively.
 
In case agreement cannot be reached as to such arrangement, Greece and Turkey will be entitled to apply to the Council of the League of Nations, which will fix the terms of such arrangement.
 
ARTICLE 144.
 
The Turkish Government recognises the injustice of the law of 1915 relating to Abandoned Properties (Emval-i-Metroukeh), and of the supplementary provisions thereof, and declares them to be null and void, in the past as in the future.
 
The Turkish Government solemnly undertakes to facilitate to the greatest possible extent the return to their homes and re-establishment in their businesses of the Turkish subjects of non-Turkish race who have been forcibly driven from their homes by fear of massacre or any other form of pressure since January 1, 1914. It recognises that any immovable or movable property of the said Turkish subjects or of the communities to which they belong, which can be recovered, must be restored to them as soon as possible, in whatever hands it may be found. Such property shall be restored free of all charges or servitudes with which it may have been burdened and without compensation of any kind to the present owners or occupiers, subject to any action which they may be able to bring against the persons from whom they derived title.
 
The Turkish Government agrees that arbitral commissions shall be appointed by the Council of the League of Nations wherever found necessary. These commissions shall each be composed of one representative of the Turkish Government, one representative of the community which claims that it or one of its members has been injured, and a ehairman appointed by the Council of the League of Nations. These arbitral commissions shall hear all claims covered by this Article and decide them by summary procedure. 
 
The arbitral commissions will have power to order:
 
(1) The provision by the Turkish Government of labour for any work of reconstruction or restoration deemed necessary. This labour shall be recruited from the races inhabiting the territory where the arbitral commission considers the execution of the said works to be necessary
 
(2) The removal of any person who, after enquiry, shall be recognised as having taken an active part in massacres or deportations or as having provoked them; the measures to be taken with regard to such person’s possessions will be indicated by the commission;
 
(3) The disposal of property belonging to members of a community who have died or disappeared since January 1, 1914, without leaving heirs; such property may be handed over to the community instead of to the State 
 
(4) The cancellation of all acts of sale or any acts creating rights over immovable property concluded after January 1, I914. The indemnification of the holders will be a charge upon the Turkish Government, but must not serve as a pretext for delaying the restitution. The arbitral commission will, however have the power to impose equitable arrangements between the interested parties, if any sum has been paid by the present holder of such property.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to facilitate in the fullest possible measure the work of the commissions and to ensure the execution of their decisions, which will be final. No decision of the Turkish judicial or administrative authorities shall prevail over such decisions.
 
ARTICLE 145.
 
All Turkish nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to race, language or religion.
 
Difference of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any Turkish national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries.
 
Within a period of two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty the Turkish Government will submit to the Allied Powers a scheme for the organisation of an electoral system based on the principle of proportional representation of racial minorities.
 
No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Turkish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings. Adequate facilities shall be given to Turkish nationals of non-Turkish speech for the use of their language, either orally or in writing, before the courts.
 
ARTICLE 146.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to recognize the validity of diplomas granted by recognised foreign universities and schools, and to admit the holders thereof to the free exercise of the professions and industries for which such diplomas qualify.
 
This provision will apply equally to nationals of Allied powers who are resident in Turkey.
 
ARTICLE 147.
 
Turkish nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic minorities shall enjoy the ame treatment and security in law and in fact as other Turkish nationals. In particular they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense, and independently of and without interference by the Turkish authorities, any charitable, religious and social institutions, schools for primary, secondary and higher instruction and other educational establishments, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their own religion freely therein.
 
ARTICLE 148.
 
In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of Turkish nationals belonging to racial, linguistic or religious minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application of the sums which may be provided out of public funds under the State, municipal or other budgets for educational or charitable purposes.
 
The sums in question shall be paid to the qualified representatives of the communities concerned. 
 
ARTICLE 149.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to recognise and respect the ecclesiastical and scholastic autonomy of all racial minorities in Turkey. For this purpose, and subject to any provisions to the contrary in the present Treaty, the Turkish Government confirms and will uphold in their entirety the prerogatives and immunities of an ecclesiastical, scholastic or judicial nature granted by the Sultans to non-Moslem races in virtue of special orders or imperial decrees (firmans, hattis, berats, etc.) as well as by ministerial orders or orders of the Grand Vizier.
 
All laws, decrees, regulations and circulars issued by the Turkish Government and containing abrogations, restrictions or amendments of such prerogatives and immunities shall be considered to such extent null and void.
 
Any modification of the Turkish judical system which may be introduced in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty shall be held to override this Article, in so far as such modification may affect individuals belonging to racial minorities.
 
ARTICLE 150.
 
In towns and districts where there is resident a considerable proportion of Turkish nationals of the Christian or Jewish religions the Turkish Government undertakes that such Turkish nationals shall not be compelled to perform any act which constitutes a violation of their faith or religious observances, and shall not be placed under any disability by reason of their refusal to attend courts of law or to perform any legal business on their weekly day of rest. This provision, however, shall not exempt such Turkish nationals (Christians or Jews) from such obligations as shall be imposed upon all other Turkish nationals for the preservation of public order.
 
ARTICLE 151.
 
The Principal Allied Powers, in consultation with the Council of the League of Nations, will decide what measures are necessary to guarantee the execution of the provisions of this Part. The Turkish Government hereby accepts all decisions which may be taken on this subject.
 
PART V.
 
MILITARY, NAVAL AND AIR CLAUSES.
 
In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation of the armaments of all nations, Turkey undertakes strictly to observe the military, naval and air clauses which follow.
 
SECTION I.
 
MILITARY CLAUSES.
 
CHAPTER I.
GENERAL CLAUSES.
ARTICLE 152.
 
The armed force at the disposal of Turkey shall only consist of:
 
(I) The Sultan’s bodyguard;
(2) Troops of gendarmerie, intended to maintain order and security in the interior and to ensure the protection of minorities
(3) Special elements intended for the reinforcement of the troops of gendarmerie in case of serious trouble, and eventually to ensure the control of the frontiers. 
 
ARTICLE 153.
 
Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the military forces other than that provided for in Article 152 shall be demobilised and disbanded.
 
CHAPTER II.
 
EFFECTIVES, ORGANISATION AND CADRES OF THE TURKISH ARMED FORCE.
 
ARTICLE 154.
 
The Sultan’s bodyguard shall consist of a staff and infantry and cavalry units, the strength of which shall not exceed 700 offirers and men. This strength is not included in the total force provided for in Article 155.
 
The composition of this guard is given in <a href=”http://http://www.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/maps/s_mil1.gif”> Table 1 annexed to this Section.</a>
 
ARTICLE 155.
 
The total strength of the forces enumerated in paragraphs (2) and (3) of Article 152 shall not exceed 50,000 men, including staffs, offficers, training personnel and depot troops.
 
ARTICLE 156.
 
The troops of gendarmerie shall be distributed over the territory of Turkey, which for this purpose will be divided into territorial areas to be delimited as provided in Article 200.
 
A legion of gendarmerie, composed of mounted and unmounted troops, provided with machine guns and with administrative and medical services will be organised in each territorial region, it will supply in the vilayets, sandjaks, cazas, etc., the detachments necessary for the organisation of a fixed protective service, mobile reserves being at its disposal at one or more points within the region.
 
On account of their special duties, the legions shall not include either artillery or technical services.
 
The total strength of the legions shall not exceed 35,000 men, to be included in the total strength of the armed force provided for in Article 155.
 
The maximum strength of any one legion shall not exceed one quarter of the total strength of the legions.
 
The elements of any one legion shall not be employed outside the territory of their region, except by special authorisation from the Inter-Allied Commission provided for in Article 200.
 
ARTICLE 157.
 
The special elements for reinforcements may include details of infantry, cavalry, mountain artillery, pioneers and the corresponding technical and general services; their total strength shall not exceed 15,000 men, to be included in the total strength provided for in Article 155.
 
The number of such reinforcements for any one legion shall not exceed one third of the whole strength of these elements without the special authority of the Inter-Allied Commission provided for in Article 200.
 
The proportion of the various arms and services entering into the composition of these special elements is laid down in Table II annexed to this Section.
 
Their quartering will be fixed as provided in Article 200.
 
To<a href=”http://http://www.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/maps/s_mil2.gif”>Table 2</a>
 
ARTICLE 158.
 
In the formations referred to in Articles 156 and 157, the proportion of officers, including the personnel of staffs and special services, shall not exceed one twentieth of the total effectives with the colours, and that of non-commissioned officers shall not exceed one twelfth of the total effectives with the colours. 
 
ARTICLE 159.
 
Offficers supplied by the various Allied or neutral Powers shail collaborate, under the direction of the Turkish Government, in the command, the organisation and the training of the gendarmerie officers authorised by Article 158, but their number shall not exceed fifteen per cent. of that strength. Special agreements to be drawn up by the Inter-Allied Commission mentioned in Article 200 shall fix the proportion of these offficers according to nationality, and shall determine the conditions of their participation in the various missions assigned to them by this Article.
 
ARTICLE 160.
 
In any one territorial region all officers placed at the disposal of the Turkish Government under the conditions laid down in Article 159 shall in principle be of the same nationality.
 
ARTICLE 161.
 
In the zone of the Straits and islands referred to in Article 178, excluding the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace Tenedos and Mitylene, the forces o Turkish, will be under the Inter-Allied Command of the forces in occupation of that zone.
 
ARTICLE 162.
 
All measures of mobilisation, or appertaining to mobilisation or tending to an increase of the strength or of the means of transport of any of the forces provided for in this Chapter are forbidden.
 
The various formations, staffs and administrative services shall not, in any case, include supplementary cadres.
 
ARTICLE 163.
 
Within the period fixed by Article 153, all existing forces of gendarmerie shall be amalgamated with the legions provided for in Article 156.
 
ARTICLE 164.
 
The formation of any body of troops not provided for in this Section is forbidden.
 
The suppression of existing formations which are in excess of the authorised strength of 50,000 men (not including the Sultan’s bodyguard) shall be effected progressively from the date of the signature of the present Treaty, in such manner as to be completed within six months at the latest after the coming into force of the Treaty, in accordance with the provisions of Article 158.
 
The number of offficers, or persons in the position of offficers, in the War Ministry and the Turkish General Staff, as well as in the administrations attached to them, shail, within the same period, be reduced to the establishment considered by the Commission referred to in Article 200 as strictly necessary for the good working of the general services of the armed Turkish force, this establishment being included in the maximum figure laid down in Article 158.
 
CHAPTER III.
 
RECRUITING.
 
ARTICLE 165.
 
The Turkish armed force shall in future be constituted and recruited by voluntary enlistment only.
 
Enlistment shall be open to all subjects of the Turkish State equally, without distinction of race or religion.
 
As regards the legions referred to in Article 156, their system of recruiting shall be in principle regional, and so regulated that the Moslem and non-Moslem elements of the population of each region may be, so far as possible, represented on the strength of the corresponding legion.
 
The provisions of the preceding paragraphs apply to offficers as well as to men.
 
ARTICLE 166.
 
The length of engagement of non-commissioned officers and men shall be twelve consecutive years.
 
The annual replacement of men released from service for any reason whatever before the expiration of their term of engagement shall not exceed five per cent. of the total effectives fixed hy Article 155.
 
ARTICLE 167.
 
All officers must be regulars (officers de carrière).
 
Officers at present serving in the army or the gendarmerie who are retained in the new armed force must undertake to serve at least up to the age of forty-five.
 
Offficers at present serving in the army or the gendarmerie who are not admitted to the new armed force shall be definitely released from all military obligations, and must not take part in any military exercises, theoretical or practical.
 
Officers newly-appointed must undertake to serve on the active list for at least twenty-five consecutive years.
 
The annual replacement of officers leaving the service for any cause before the expiration of their term of engagement shall not exceed five per cent. of the total effectives of officers provided by Article 158.
 
CHAPTER IV.
 
SCHOOLS, EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS, MILITARY CLASS AND SOCIETIES
 
ARTICLE 168.
 
On the expiration of three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty there must only exist in Turkey the number of military schools which is absolutely indispensable for the recruitment of offficers and non-commissioned officers of the units allowed, i.e.:
 
school for officers;
 
1 school per territorial region for non-commissioned officers. 
 
The number of students admitted to instruction in these schools shall be strictly in proportion to the vacancies to be filled in the cadres of officers and non-commissioned officers.
 
ARTICLE 169.
 
Educational establishments, other than those referred to in Article 168, as well as all sporting or other societies, must not occupy themselves with any military matters.
 
CHAPTER V.
 
CUSTOMS OFFICIALS, LOCAL URBAN AND RURAL POLICE, FOREST GUARDS.
 
ARTICLE 170.
 
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 48, Part III (Political Clauses), the number of customs officials, local urban or rural police, forest guards or other like officials shall not exceed the number of men employed in a similar capacity in 1913 within the territorial limits of Turkey as fixed by the present Treaty.
 
The number of these officials may only be increased in the future in proportion to the increase of population in the localities or municipalities which employ them.
 
These employees and officials, as well as those employed in the railway service, must not be assembled for the purpose of taking part in any military exercises.
 
In each administrative district the local urban and rural police and forest guards shall be recruited and officered according to the principles laid down in the case of the gendarmerie by Article 165.
 
In the Turkish police, which, as forming part of the civil administration of Turkey, will remain distinct from the Turkish armed force, officers or officials supplied by the various Allied or neutral Powers shall collaborate, under the direction of the Turkish Government, in the organisation the command and the training of the said police. The number of these officers or officials shall not exceed fifteen per cent. of the strength of similar Turkish officers or officials.
 
CHAPTER VI.
 
ARMAMENT, MUNITIONS AND MATERIAL
 
ARTICLE 171 .
 
On the expiration of six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the armament which may be in use or held in reserve for replacement in the various formations of the Turkish armed force shall not exceed the figures fixed per thousand men in Table III annexed to this Section.
 
ARTICLE 172
 
The stock of munitions at the disposal of Turkey shall not exceed the amounts fixed in Table III annexed to this Section.
 
ARTICLE 173.
 
Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty all existing arms, munitions of the various categories and war material in excess of the quantities authorised shall be handed over to the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control provided for in Article 200 in such places as shall be appointed by this Commission.
 
The Principal Allied Powers will decide what is to be done with this material.
 
ARTICLE 174.
 
The manufacture of arms, munitions and war material, including aircraft and parts of aircraft of every description, shall take place only in the factories or establishments authorised by the Inter-Allied Commission referred to in Article 200.
 
Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty all other establishments for the manufacture, preparation, storage or design of arms, munitions or any war material shall be abolished or converted to purely commercial uses.
 
The same will apply to all arsenals other than those utilised as depots for the authorised stocks of munitions.
 
The plant of establishments or arsenals in excess of that required for the authorised manufacture shall be rendered useless or converted to purely commercial uses, in accordance with the decisions of the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control referred to in Article 200.
 
ARTICLE 175
 
The importation into Turkey of arms, munitions and war materials, including aircraft and parts of aircraft of every description, is strictly forbidden, except with the special authority of the Inter-Allied Commission referred to in Article 200.
 
The manufacture for foreign countries and the exportation of arms, munitions and war material of any description is also forbidden.
 
ARTICLE 176.
 
The use of flame-throwers, asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases and all similar liquids, materials or processes being forbidden, their manufacture and importation are strictly forbidden in Turkey.
 
Material specially intended for the manufacture, storage or use of the said products or processes is equally forbidden.
 
The manufacture and importation into Turkey of armoured cars, tanks or any other similar machines suitable for use in war are equally forbidden.
 
CHAPTER VII.
 
FORTIFICATIONS
 
ARTICLE 177.
 
In the zone of the Straits and islands referred to in Article 178 the fortifications will be disarmed and demolished as provided in that Article.
 
Outside this zone, and subject to the provisions of Article 89, the existing fortified works may be preserved in their present condition, but will be disarmed within the same period of three months.
 
CHAPTER VIII.
 
MAINTENANCE OF THE FREEDOM OF THE STRAITS
 
ARTICLE 178.
 
For the purpose of guaranteeing the freedom of the Straits, the High Contracting Parties agree to the following provisions:
 
(I) Within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, all works, fortifications and batteries within the zone defined in Article 179 and comprising the coast and islands of the Sea of Marmora and the coast of the Straits, also those in the Islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, Tenedos and Mitylene, shall be disarmed and demolished.
 
The reconstruction of these works and the construction of similar works are forbidden in the above zone and islands. France, Great Britain and Italy shall have the right to prepare for demolition any existing roads and railways in the said zone and in the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, and Tenedos which allow of the rapid transport of mobile batteries, the construction there of such roads and railways remaining forbidden.
 
In the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace and Tenedos the construction of new roads or railways must not be undertaken except with the authority of the three Powers mentioned above.
 
(2) The measures prescribed in the first paragraph of (I) shall be executed by and at the expense of Greece and Turkey as regards their respective territories, and under control as provided in Article 203.
 
(3) The territories of the zone and the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, Tenedos, and Mitylene shall not be used for military purposes, except by the three Allied Powers referred to above, acting in concert. This provision does not exclude the employment in the said zone and islands of forces of Greek and Turkish gendarmerie, who will be under the Inter-Allied command of the forces of occupation, in accordance with the provisions of Article 161, nor the maintenance of a garrison of Greek troops in the island of Mitylene, nor the presence of the Sultan’s bodyguard referred to in Article 152.
 
(4) The said Powers, acting in concert, shall have the right to maintain in the said territories and islands such military and air forces as they may consider necessary to prevent any action being taken or prepared which might directly or indirectly prejudice the freedom of the Straits.
 
This supervision will be carried out in naval matters by a guard-ship belonging to each of the said Allied Powers.
 
The forces of occupation referred to above may, in case of necessity, exercise on land the right of requisition, subject to the same conditions as those laid down in the Regulations annexed to the Fourth Hague Convention, 1907, or any other Convention replacing it to which all the said Powers are parties. Requisitions shall, however, only be made against payment on the spot.
 
ARTICLE 179.
 
The zone referred to in Article 178 is defined as follows:
 
(I) In Europe:
 
From Karachali on the Gulf of Xeros north-eastwards,
a line reaching and then following the southern boundary of the basin of the Beylik Dere to the crest of the Kuru Dagh;
then following that crest line,
then a straight line passing north of Emerli, and south of Derelar,
then curving north-north-eastwards and cutting the road from Rodosto to Malgara 3 kilometres west of Ainarjik and then passing 6 kilometres south-east of Ortaja Keui,
then curving north-eastwards and cutting the road from Rodosto to Hairobolu 18 kilometres northwest of Rodosto,
then to a point on the road from Muradli to Rodosto about kilometre south of Muradli,
a straight line;
thence east-north-eastwards to.Yeni Keui,
a straight line, modified, however, so as to pass at a minimum distance of 2 kilometres north of the railway from Chorlu to Chatalja;
thence north-north-eastwards to a point west of Istranja,
situated on the frontier of Turkey in Europe as defined in Article 27, 1 (2),
a straight line leaving the village of Yeni Keui within the zone; thence to the Black Sea,
the frontier of Turkey in Europe as defined in Article 27, 1 (2).
 
(2) In Asia:
 
From a point to be determined by the Principal Allied Powers between Cape Dahlina and Kemer Iskele on the gulf of Adramid east-north-eastwards,
a line passing south of Kemer Iskele and Kemer together with the road joining these places;
then to a point immediately south of the point where the Decauville railway from Osmanlar to Urchanlar crosses the Diermen Dere,
a straight line;
thence north-eastwards to Manias Geul,
a line following the right bank of the Diermen Dere, and Kara Dere Suyu;
thence eastwards, the southern shore of Manias Geul;
then to the point where it is crossed by the railway from Panderma to Susighirli, the course of the Kara Dere upstream;
thence eastwards to a point on the Adranos Chai about kilometres from its mouth near Kara Oghlan,
a straight line;
thence eastwards, the course of this river downstream then the southern shore of Abulliont Geul;
then to the point where the railway from Mudania to Brusa crosses the Ulfer Chai, about 5 kilometres northwest of Brusa,
a straight line;
thence north-eastwards to the confluence of the rivers about 6 kilometres north of Brusa,
the course of the Ulfer Chai downstream;
thence eastwards to the southernmost point of Iznik Geul,
a straight line;
thence to a point 2 kilometres north of Iznik,
the southern and eastern shores of this lake;
thence north-eastwards to the westernmost point of Sbanaja Geul,
a line following the crest line Chirchir Chesme, Sira Dagh,
Elmali Dagh, Kalpak Dagh, Ayu Tepe, Hekim Tepe; thence northwards to a point on the road from Ismid to Armasha, 8 kilometres southwest of Armasha,
a line following as far as possible the eastern boundary of the basin of the Chojali Dere;
thence to a point on the Black Sea, 2 kilometres east of the mouth of the Akabad R,
a straight line.
 
ARTICLE 180.
 
A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the boundaries of the zone referred to in Article 178, except in so far as these boundaries coincide with the frontier line described in Article 27,1(2). This Commission shall be composed of three members nominated by the military authorities of France, Great Britain and Italy respectively, with, for the portion of the zone placed under Greek sovereignty, one member nominated by the Greek Government, and, for the portion of the zone remaining under Turkish sovereignty, one member nominated by the Turkish Government. The decisions of the Commission, which will be taken by a majority, shall be binding on the parties concerned. The expenses of this Commission will be included in the expenses of the occupation of the said zone.
 
SECTION II.
 
NAVAL CLAUSES.
 
ARTICLE 181.
 
From the coming into force of the present Treaty all warships interned in Turkish ports in accordance with the Armistice of October 30, 1918, are declared to be finally surrendered to the Principal Allied Powers.
 
Turkey will, however, retain the right to maintain along her coasts for police and fishery duties a number of vessels which shall not exceed:
 
7 sloops,
 
6 torpedo boats.
 
These vessels will constitute the Turkish Marine, and will be chosen by the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control referred to in Article 201 from amongst the following vessels:
 
SLOOPS
 
Aidan Reis. Hizir Reis.
Burock Reis. Kemal Reis.
Sakis. Issa Reis.
Prevesah.
TORPEDO-BOATS
 
            
                    Sisri Hissar.         Moussoul.
                    Sultan Hissor.      Ack Hissar.
                    Drach.                Younnous.
 
 
The authority established for the control of customs will be entitled to appeal to the three Allied Powers referred to in Article 178 in order to obtain a more considerable force, if such an increase is considered indispensable for the satisfactory working of the services concerned.
 
Sloops may carry a light armament of two guns inferior to 77 m /m. and two machine guns. Torpedo-boats (or patrol launches) may carry a light armament of one gun inferior to 77 m/m. All the torpedoes and torpedo-tubes on board will be removed.
 
ARTICLE 182.
 
Turkey is forbidden to construct or acquire any warships other than those intended to replace the units referred to in Article 181. Torpedo-boats shall be replaced by patrol launches.
 
The vessels intended for replacement purposes shall not exceed: 600 tons in the case of sloops;
 
l00 tons in the case of patrol launches.
 
Except where a ship has been lost, sloops and torpedo-boats shall only be replaced after a period of twenty years, counting from the launching of the ship.
 
ARTICLE 183.
 
The Turkish armed transports and fleet auxiliaries enumerated below shall be disarmed and treated as merchant ships:
 
Rechid Pasha (late Port Antonio).
Tir-i-Mujghion (late Pembroke Castle).
Kiresund (late Warwick Castle).
Millet (late Seagull).
Akdeniz.
 
Bosphorus ferry-boats Nos. 60, 61, 63 and 70.
 
ARTICLE 184.
 
All warships, including submarines, now under construction in Turkey shall be broken up, with the exception of such surface vessels as can be completed for commercial purposes.
 
The work of breaking up these vessels shall be commenced on the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 185.
 
Articles, machinery and material arising from the breaking up of Turkish warships of all kinds, whether surface vessels or submarines, may not be used except for purely industrial or commercial purposes. They may not be sold or disposed of to foreign countries.
 
ARTICLE 186.
 
The construction or acquisition of any submarine, even for commercial purposes, shall be forbidden in Turkey.
 
ARTICLE 187.
 
The vessels of the Turkish Marine enumerated in Article 181 must have on board or in reserve only the allowance of war material and armaments fixed by the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control referred to in Article 201. Within a month from the time when the above quantities are fixed all armaments rmunitions or other naval war material including mines and torpedoes, belonging to Turkey at the time of the signing of the Armistice of October 30, 1918, must be definitely surrendered to the Principal Allied Powers.
 
The manufacture of these articles in Turkish territory for, and their export to, foreign countries shall be forbidden.
 
All other stocks, depots or reserves of arms, munitions or naval war material of all kinds are forbidden.
 
ARTICLE 188.
 
The Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control will fix the number of officers and men of all grades and corps to be admitted in accordance with the provisions of Article 189, into the Turkish Marine. This number will include the personnel for manning the ships left to Turkey in accordance with Article 181, and the administrative personnel of the police and fisheries protection services and of the semaphore stations.
 
Within two months from the time when the above number is fixed, the personnel of the former Turkish Navy in excess of this number shall be demobilised. 
 
No naval or military corps or reserve force in connection with the Turkish Marine may be organised in Turkey without being included in the above strength.
 
ARTICLE 189.
 
The personnel of the Turkish Marine shall be recuited entirely by voluntary engagements entered into for a minimum period of twenty-five consecutive years for officers, and twelve consecutive years for petty officers and men.
 
The number engaged to replace those discharged for any reason other than the expiration of their term of service must not exceed five per cent. per annum of the total personnel fixed by the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control.
 
The personnel discharged from the former Turkish Navy must not receive any kind of naval or military training.
 
Officers belonging to the former Turkish Navy and not demobilised must undertake to serve till the age of forty-five, unless discharged for sufficient reason.
 
Officers and men belonging to the Turkish mercantile marine must not receive any kind of naval or military training.
 
ARTICLE 190.
 
On the coming into force of the present Treaty all the wireless stations in the zone referred to in Article 178 shall be handed over to the Principal Allied Powers. Greece and Turkey shall not construct any wireless stations in the said zone.
 
SECTION III.
 
AIR CLAUSES.
 
ARTICLE 19l.
 
The Turkish armed forces must not include any military or naval air forces.
 
No dirigible shall be kept.
 
ARTICLE 192.
 
Within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the personnel of the air forces on the rolls of the Turkish land and sea forces shall be demobilised.
 
ARTICLE 193.
 
Until the complete evacuation of Turkish territory by the Allied troops, the aircraft of the Allied Powers shall have throughout Turkish territory freedom of passage through the air, freedom of transit and of landing.
 
ARTICLE 194.
 
During the six months following the coming into force of the present Treaty the manufacture, importation and exportation of aircraft of every kind, parts of aircraft, engines for aircraft and parts of engines for aircraft shall be forbidden in all Turkish territory.
 
ARTICLE 195.
 
On the coming into force of the present Treaty all military and naval aeronautical material must be delivered by Turkey, at her own expense, to the Principal Allied Powers.
 
Delivery must be completed within six months and must be effected at such places as may be appointed by the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control. The Governments of the Principal Allied Powers will decide as to the disposal of this material.
 
In particular, this material will include all items under the following heads which are or have been in use or were designed for warlike purposes.
 
Complete aeroplanes and seaplanes, as well as those being manufactured, repaired or assembled.
 
Dirigibles able to take the air, being manufactured, repaired or assembled.
 
Plant for the manufacture of hydrogen.
 
Dirigible sheds and shelters of every kind for aircraft.
 
Pending their delivery, dirigibles will, at the expense of Turkey be maintained inflated with hydrogen; the plant for the manufacture of hydrogen, as well as the sheds for dirigibles, may, at the discretion of the said Powers, be left to Turkey until the dirigibles are handed over.
 
Engines for aircraft.
 
Nacelles and fuselages.
 
Armament (guns, machine-guns, light machine-guns, bombdropping apparatus, torpedo-dropping apparatus, synchronising apparatus, aiming apparatus).
 
Munitions (cartridges, shells, bombs loaded or unloaded, stocks of explosives or of material for their manufacture).
 
Instruments for use on aircraft.
 
Wireless apparatus and photographic and cinematographic apparatus for use on aircraft.
 
Component parts of any of the items under the preceding heads.
 
All aeronautical material of whatsoever description in Turkey shall be considered primdfocie as war material, and as such may not be exported, transferred, lent, used or destroyed, but must remain on the spot until such time as the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control referred to in Article 202 has given a decision as to its nature; this Commission will be exclusively entitled to decide all such points.
 
SECTION IV.
 
INTER-ALLIED COMMISSIONS OF CONTROL AND ORGANISATION.
 
ARTICLE 196.
 
Subject to any special provisions in this Part, the military, naval and air clauses contained in the present Treaty shall be executed by Turkey and at her expense under the control of Inter-Allied Commissions appointed for this purpose by the Principal Allied Powers.
 
The above-mentioned Commissions will represent the Principal Allied Powers in dealing with the Turkish Government in all matters relating to the execution of the military, naval or air clauses. They will communicate to the Turkish authorities the decisions which the Principal Allied Powers have reserved the right to take, or which the execution of the said clauses may necessitate.
 
ARTICLE 197.
 
The Inter-Allied Commissions of Control and Organisation may establish their organisations at Constantinople, and will be entitled, as often as they think desirable, to proceed to any point whatever in Turkish territory, or to send sub-commissions, or to authorise one or more of their members to go, to any such point.
 
ARTICLE 198.
 
The Turkish Government must furnish to the Inter-Allied Commissions of Control and Organisation all such information and documents as the latter may deem necessary for the accomplishment of their mission, and must supply at its own expense all labour and material which the said Commissions may require in order to ensure the complete execution of the military, naval or air clauses.
 
The Turkish Government shall attach a qualified representative to each Commission for the purpose of receiving all communications which the Commission may have to address to the Turkish Government, and of supplying or procuring for the Commission all information or documents which may be required.
 
ARTICLE 199.
 
The upkeep and cost of the Inter-Allied Commissions of Control and Organisation and the expenses incurred by their work shall be borne by Turkey. 
 
ARTICLE 200.
 
The Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control and Organisation will be entrusted on the one hand with the supervision of the execution of tbe military clauses relating to the reduction of the Turkish forces within the authorised limits, the delivery of arms and war material prescribed in Chapter VI of Section I and the disarmament of the fortified regions prescribed in Chapters VII and VIII of that Section, and on the other hand with the organisation and the control of the employment of the new Turkish armed force.
 
(l) As the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control it will be its special duty:
 
(a) To fix the number of customs officials, local urban and rural police, forest guards and other like officials which Turkey will be authorised to maintain in accordance with Article 170.
 
(b) To receive from the Turkish Government the notifications relating to the location of the stocks and depots of munitions, the armament of the fortified works, fortresses and forts, the situation of the works or factories for the production of arms, munitions and war material and their operations.
 
(c) To take delivery of the arms, munitions, war material and plant intended for manufacture of the same, to select the points where such delivery is to be effected, and to supervise the works of rendering things useless and of conversion provided for by the present Treaty. 
 
(2) As the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Organisation it will be its special duty:
 
(a) To proceed, in collaboration with the Turkish Government, with the organisation of the Turkish armed force upon the basis laid down in Chapters I to IV, Section I of this Part, with the delimitation of the territorial regions provided for in Article 156, and with the distribution of the troops of gendarmerie and the special elements for reinforcement between the different territorial regions;
 
(b) To control the conditions for the employment, as laid down in Articles 156 and I57, of these troops of gendarmerie and these elements, and to decide what effect shall be given to requests of the Turkish Government for the provisional modification of the normal distribution of these forces determined in conformity with the said Articles;
 
(c) To determine the proportion by nationality of the Allied and neutral officers to be engaged to serve in the Turkish gendarmerie under the conditions laid down in Article 159, and to lay down the conditions under which they are to participate in the different duties provided for them in the said Article.
 
ARTICLE 201.
 
It will be the special duty of the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control to visit the building yards and to supervise the breaking-up of the ships, to take delivery of the arms, munitions and naval war material and to supervise their destruction and breaking up.
 
The Turkish Government must furnish to the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control all such information and documents as the latter may deem necessary to ensure the complete execution of the naval clauses, in particular the designs of the warships, the composition of their armaments, the details and models of the guns, munitions, torpedoes, mines, explosives, wireless telegraphic apparatus and in general everything relating to naval war material, as well as all legislative or administrative documents and regulations.
 
ARTICLE 202.
 
It will be the special duty of the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control to make an inventory of the aeronautical material now in the hands of the Turkish Government, to inspect aeroplane, balloon and motor manufactories and factories producing arms, munitions and explosives capable of being used by aircraft, to visit all aerodromes, sheds, landing grounds, parks and depots on Turkish territory, to arrange, if necessary, for the removal of material and to take delivery of such material.
 
The Turkish Government must furnish to the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control all such information and legislative, administrative or other documents as the Commission may consider necessary to ensure the complete execution of the air clauses, and in particular a list of the personnel belonging to all the Turkish air services and of the existing material as well as of that in process of manufacture or on order, and a complete list of all establishments working for aviation, of their positions, and of all sheds and landing grounds.
 
ARTICLE 203.
 
The Military, Naval and Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commissions of Control will appoint representatives who will be jointly responsible for controlling the execution of the operations provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2) of Article 178.
 
ARTICLE 204.
 
Pending the definitive settlement of the political status of the territories referred to in Article 89, the decisions of the Inter- Allied Commissions of Control and Organisation will be subject to any modifications which the said Commissions may consider necessary in consequence of such settlement.
 
ARTICLE 205.
 
The Naval and Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commissions of Control will cease to operate on the completion of the tasks assigned to them respectively by Articles 201 and 202.
 
The same will apply to the section of the Military Inter-Allied Commission entrusted with the functions of control prescribed in Article 200 (1).
 
The section of the said Commission entrusted with the organisation of the new Turkish armed force as provided in Article 200 (2) will operate for five years from the coming into force of the present Treaty. The Principal Allied Powers reserve the right to decide, at the end of this period, whether it is desirable to maintain or suppress this section of the said Commission.
 
SECTION V.
 
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
 
ARTICLE 206.
 
The following portions of the Armistice of October 30, 1918: Articles 7, 10, 12, 13 and 24 remain in force so far as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 207.
 
Turkey undertakes from the coming into force of the present Treaty not to accredit to any foreign country any military, naval or air mission, and not to send or allow the departure of such mission; she undertakes, moreover, to take the necessary steps to prevent Turkish nationals from leaving her territory in order to enlist in the army, fleet or air service of any foreign Power, or to be attached thereto with the purpose of helping in its training, or generally to give any assistance to the military, naval or air instruction in a foreign country.
 
The Allied Powers undertake on their part that from the coming into force of the present Treaty they will neither enlist in their armies, fleets or air services nor attach to them any Turkish national with the object of helping in military training, or in general employ any Turkish national as a military, naval or air instructor.
 
The present provision does not, however, affect the right of France to recruit for the Foreign Legion in accordance with French military laws and regulations.
 
 
PART VI.
 
PRISONERS OF WAR AND GRAVES.
 
SECTION I.
 
PRISONERS OF WAR.
 
ARTICLE 208.
 
The repatriation of Turkish prisoners of war and interned civilians who have not already been repatriated shall continue as quickly as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 209.
 
From the time of their delivery into the hands of the Turkish authorities, the prisoners of war and interned civilians are to be returned without delay to their homes by the said authorities.
 
Those among them who, before the war, were habitually resident in territory occupied by the troops of the Allied Powers are likewise to be sent to their homes, subject to the consent and control of the military authorities of the Allied armies of occupation.
 
ARTICLE 210.
 
The whole cost of repatriation from October 30, 1918, shall be borne by the Turkish Government.
 
ARTICLE 211.
 
Prisoners of war and interned civilians awaiting disposal or undergoing sentence for offences against discipline shall be repatriated irrespective of the completion of their sentence or of the proceedings pending against them.
 
This stipulation shall not apply to prisoners of war and interned civilians punished for offences committed subsequent to June 15, 1920.
 
During the period pending their repatriation, all prisoners of war and interned civilians shall remain subject to the existing regulations, more especially as regards work and discipline.
 
ARTICLE 212.
 
Prisoners of war and interned civilians who are awaiting trial or undergoing sentence for offences other than those against discipline may be detained.
 
ARTICLE 213.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to admit to its territory without distinction all persons liable to repatriation.
 
Prisoners of war or Turkish nationals who do not desire to be repatriated may be excluded from repatriation; but the Allied Governments reserve to themselves the right either to repatriate them or to take them to a neutral country or to allow them to reside in their own territories.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes not to institute any exceptional proceedings against these persons or their families nor to take any repressive or vexatious measures of any kind whatsoever against them on this account.
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ARTICLE 214.
 
The Allied Governments reserve the right to make the repatriation of Turkish prisoners of war or Turkish nationals in their hands conditional upon the immediate notification and release by the Turkish Government of any prisoners of war and other nationals of the Allied Powers who are still held in Turkey against their will.
 
ARTICLE 2I5.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes:
 
(I) To give every facility to Commissions entrusted by the Allied Powers with the search for the missing or the identification of Allied nationals who have expressed their desire to remain in Turkish territory; to furnish such Commissions with all necessary means of transport; to allow them access to camps, prisons, hospitals and all other places; and to place at their disposal all documents whether public or private which would facilitate their enquiries;
 
(2) To impose penalties upon any Turkish officials or private persons who have concealed the presence of any nationals of any of the Allied Powers, or who have neglected to reveal the presence of any such after it had come to their knowledge;
 
(3) To facilitate the establishing of criminal acts punishable by the penalties referred to in Part VII (Penalties) of the present Treaty and committed by Turks against the persons of prisoners of war or Allied nationals during the war. 
 
ARTICLE 216.
 
The Turkish Govermnent undertakes to restore without delay from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty all articles, equipment, arms, money, securities, documents and personal effects of every description which have belonged to officers, soldiers or sailors or other nationals of the Allied Powers and which have been retained by the Turkish authorities.
 
ARTICLE 217.
 
The High Contracting Parties waive reciprocally all repayment of sums due for the maintenance of prisoners of war in their respective territories.
 
SECTION II.
 
GRAVES.
 
ARTICLE 218.
 
The Turkish Government shall transfer to the British, French and Italian Governments respectively full and exclusive rights of ownership over the land within the boundaries of Turkey as fixed by the present Treaty in which are situated the graves of their soldiers and sailors who fell in action or died from wounds, accident or disease, as well as over the land required for laying out cemeteries or erecting memorials to these soldiers and sailors, or providing means of access to such cemeteries or memorials.
 
The Greek Government undertakes to fulfil the same obligation so far as concerns the portion of the zone of the Straits and the islands placed under its sovereignty.
 
ARTICLE 219.
 
Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the British, French and Italian Governments will respectively notify to the Turkish Government and the Greek Government the land of which the ownership is to be transferred to them in accordance with Article 218. The British, French and Italian Governments will each have the right to appoint a Commission, which shall be exclusively entitled to examine the areas where burials have or may have taken place, and to make suggestions with regard to the re-grouping of graves and the sites where cemeteries are eventually to be established. The Turkish Government and the Greek Government may be represented on these Commissions, and shall give them all assistance in carrying out their mission.
 
The said land will include in particular the land in the Gallipoli Peninsula shown on map No. 3 [see Introduction]; the limits of this land will be notified to the Greek Government as provided in the preceding paragraph. The Government in whose favour the transfer is made undertakes not to employ the land, nor to allow it to be employed, for any purpose other than that to which it is dedicated. The shore may not be employed for any military, marine or commercial purpose.
 
ARTICLE 220.
 
Any necessary legislative or administrative measures for the transfer to the British, French and Italian Governments respectively of full and exclusive rights of ownership over the land notified in accordance with Article 219 shall be taken by the Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively within six months from the date of such notification. If any compulsory acquisition of the land is necessary it will be effected by, and at the cost of, the Turkish Government or the Greek Government, as the case may be.
 
ARTICLE 221.
 
The British, French and Italian Governments may respectively entrust f gendarmerie, Greek and Turkish, will be under the I deem fit the establishment, arrangement, maintenance and care of the cemeteries, memorials and graves situated in the land referred to in Article 218.
 
These Commissions or organisations shall be officially recognised by the Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively. They shall have the right to undertake any exhumations or removal of bodies which they may consider necessary in order to concentrate the graves and establish cemeteries; the remains of soldiers or sailors may not be exhumed, on any pretext whatever, without the authority of the Commission or organisation of the Government concerned.
 
ARTICLE 222.
 
The land referred to in this Section shall not be subjected by Turkey or the Turkish authorities, or by Greece or the Greek authorities, as the case may be, to any form of taxation. Representatives of the British, French or Italian Governments, as well as persons desirous of visiting the cemeteries, memorials and graves, shall at all times have free access thereto. The Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively undertake to maintain in perpetuity the roads leading to the said land.
 
The Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively undertake to afford to the British, French and Italian Governments all necessary facilities for obtaining a sufficient water supply for the requirements of the staff engaged in the maintenance or protection of the said cemeteries or memorials, and for the irrigation of the land.
 
ARTICLE 223.
 
The provisions of this Section do not affect the Turkish or Greek sovereignty, as the case may be, over the land transferred. The Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively shall take all the necessary measures to ensure the punishment of persons subject to their jurisdiction who may be guilty of any violation of the rights conferred on the Allied Governments, or of any desecration of the cemeteries, memorials or graves.
 
ARTICLE 224.
 
Without prejudice to the other provisions of this Section, the Allied Governments and the Turkish Government will cause to be respected and maintained the graves of soldiers and sailors buried in their respective territories, including any territories for which they may hold a mandate in conformity with the Covenant of the League of Nations.
 
ARTICLE 225.
 
The graves of prisoners of war and interned civilians who are nationals of the different belligerent States and have died in captivity shall be properly maintained in accordance with
 
Article 224.
 
The Allied Governments on the one hand and the Turkish Government on the other reciprocally undertake also to furnish to each other:
 
(1) A complete list of those who have died, together with all information useful for identification
 
(2) All information as to the number and position of the graves of all those who have been buried without identification. 
 
PART VII.
 
PENALTIES.
 
ARTICLE 226.
 
The Turkish Government recognises the right of the Allied Powers to bring before military tribunals persons accused of having committed acts in violation of the laws and customs of war. Such persons shall, if found guilty, be sentenced to punishments laid down by law. This provision will apply notwithstanding any proceedings or prosecution before a tribunal in Turkey. or in the territory of her allies.
 
The Turkish Government shall hand over to the Allied Powers or to such one of them as shall so request all persons accused of having committed an act in violation of the laws and customs of war, who are specified either by name or by the rank, office or employment which they held under the Turkish authorities.
 
ARTICLE 227.
 
Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of one of the Allied Powers shall be brought before the military tribunals of that Power.
 
Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of more than one of the Allied Powers shall be brought before military tribunals composed of members of the military tribunals of the Powers concerned.
 
In every case the accused shall be entitled to name his own counsel.
 
ARTICLE 228.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to furnish all documents and information of every kind, the production of which may be considered necessary to ensure the full knowledge of the incriminating acts, the prosecution of offenders and the just appreciation of responsibility.
 
ARTICLE 229.
 
The provisions of Articles 226 to 228 apply similarly to the Governments of the States to which territory belonging to the former Turkish Empire has been or may be assigned, in so far as concerns persons accused of having committed acts contrary to the laws and customs of war who are in the territory or at the disposal of such States.
 
If the persons in question have acquired the nationality of one of the said States, the Government of such State undertakes to take, at the request of the Power concerned and in agreement with it, or upon the joint request of all the Allied Powers, all the measures necessary to ensure the prosecution and punishment of such persons.
 
ARTICLE 230.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to hand over to the Allied Powers the persons whose surrender may be required by the latter as being responsible for the massacres committed during the continuance of the state of war on territory which formed part of the Turkish Empire on August 1, 1914.
 
The Allied Powers reserve to themselves the right to designate the tribunal which shall try the persons so accused, and the Turkish Government undertakes to recognise such tribunal.
 
In the event of the League of Nations having created in sufficient time a tribunal competent to deal with the said massacres, the Allied Powers reserve to themselves the right to bring the accused persons mentioned above before such tribunal, and the Turkish Government undertakes equally to recognise such tribunal.
 
The provisions of Article 228 apply to the cases dealt with in this Article. 
 
PART VIII.
 
FINANCIAL CLAUSES.
 
ARTICLE 231.
 
Turkey recognises that by joining in the war of aggression which Germany and Austria-Hungary waged against the Allied Powers she has caused to the latter losses and sacrifices of all kinds for which she ought to make complete reparation.
 
On the other hand, the Allied Powers recognise that the resources of Turkey are not sufficient to enable her to make complete reparation.
 
In these circumstances, and inasmuch as the territorial rearrangements resulting from the present Treaty will leave to Turkey only a portion of the revenues of the former Turkish Empire, all claims against the Turkish Government for reparation are waived by the Allied Powers, subject only to the provisions of this Part and of Part IX (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.
 
The Allied Powers, desiring to afford some measure of relief and assistance to Turkey, agree with the Turkish Government that a Financial Commission shall be appointed consisting of one representative of each of the following Allied Powers who are specially interested, France, the British Empire and Italy, with whom there shall be associated a Turkish Commissioner in a consultative capacity. The powers and duties of this Commission are set forth in the following Articles.
 
ARTICLE 232.
 
The Financial Commission shall take such steps as in its judgment are best adapted to conserve and increase the resources of Turkey. 
 
The Budget to be presented annually by the Minister of Finance to the Turkish Parliament shall be submitted, in the first instance, to the Financial Commission, and shall be presented to Parliament in the form approved by that Commission. No modification introduced by Parliament shall be operative without the approval of the Financial Commission.
 
The Financial Commission shall supervise the execution of the Budget and the financial laws and regulations of Turkey. This supervision shall be exercised through the medium of the Turkish Inspectorate of Finance, which shall be placed under the direct orders of the Financial Commission, and whose members will only be appointed with the approval of the Commission.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to furnish to this Inspectorate all facilities necessary for the fulfilment of its task, and to take such action against unsuitable officials in the Financial Departments of the Government as the Financial Commission may suggest.
 
ARTICLE 233.
 
The Financial Commission shall, in addition, in agreement with the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt and the Imperial Ottoman Bank, undertake by such means as may be recognised to be opportune and equitable the regulation and improvement of the Turkish currency.
 
ARTICLE 234.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes not to contract any internal or external loan without the consent of the Financial Commission.
 
ARTICLE 235.
 
The Turkish Government engages to pay, in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty, for all loss or damage, as defined in Article 236, suffered by civilian nationals of the Allied Powers, in respect of their persons or property, through the action or negligence of the Turkish authorities during the war and up to the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
The Turkish Government will be bound to make to the European Commission of the Danube such restitutions, reparations and indemnities as may be fixed by the Financial Commission in respect of damages inHicted on the said European Commission of the Danube during the war.
 
ARTICLE 236.
 
All the resources of Turkey, except revenues conceded or hypothecated to the service of the Ottoman Public Debt (see Annex 1), shall be placed at the disposal of the Financial Commission, which shall employ them, as need arises, in the following manner:
 
(i) The first charge (after payment of the salaries and current expenses of the Financial Commission, and of the ordinary expenses of such Allied forces of occupation as may be maintained after the coming into force of the present Treaty in territories remaining Turkish) shall be the expenses of the Allied forces of occupation since October 30, 1918, in territory remaining Turkish, and the expenses of Allied forces of occupation in territories detached from Turkey in favour of a Power other than the Power which has borne the expenses of occupation.
 
The amount of these expenses and of the annuities by which they shall be discharged will be determined by the Financial Commission, which will so arrange the annuities as to enable Turkey to meet any deficiency that may arise in the sums required to pay that part of the interest on the Ottoman Public Debt for which Turkey remains responsible in accordance with this Part.
 
(ii) The second charge shall be the indemnity which the Turkish Government is to pay, in accordance with Article 235, on account of the claims of the Allied Powers for loss or damage suffered in respect of their persons or property by their nationals, (other than those who were Turkish nationals on August 1, 1914) as defined in Article 317, Part IX (Economic Clauses), through the action or negligence of the Turkish authorities during the war, due regard being had to the financial condition of Turkey and the necessity for providing for the essential expenses of its administration. The Financial Commission shall adjudicate on and provide for payment of all claims in respect of personal damage. The claims in respect to property shall be investigated, determined and paid in accordance with Article 287, Part IX (Economic Clauses). The Financial Commission shall fix the annuity to be applied to the settlement of claims in respect of persons as well as in respect of property, should the funds at the disposal of the Allied Powers in accordance with the said Article 287, be insufficient to meet this charge, and shall determine the currency in which the annuity shall be paid.
 
ARTICLE 237
 
Any hypothecation of Turkish revenues effected during the war in respect of obligations (including the internal debt) contracted by the Turkish Government during the war is hereby annulled.
 
ARTICLE 238.
 
Turkey recognises the transfer to the Allied Powers of any claims to payment or repayment which Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary may have against her, in accordance with Article 261 of the Treaty of Peace concluded at Versailles on June 28, 19l9, with Germany, and the corresponding Articles of the Treaties of Peace with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary. The Allied Powers agree not to require from Turkey any pay ment in respect of claims so transferred.
 
ARTICLE 239.
 
No new concession shall be granted by the Turkish Government either to a Turkish subject or otherwise without the consent of the Financial Commission.
 
ARTICLE 240.
 
States in whose favour territory is detached from Turkey shall acquire without payment all property and possessions situated therein registered in the name of the Turkish Empire or of the Civil List.
 
ARTICLE 241.
 
States in whose favour territory has been detached from Turkey, either as a result of the Balkan Wars in 1913, or under the present Treaty, shall participate in the annual charge for the service of the Ottoman Public Debt contracted before November 1, 1914.
 
The Governments of the States of the Balkan Peninsula and the newly-created States in Asia in favour of whom such territory has been or is detached from Turkey shall give adequate guarantees for the payment of the share of the above annual charge allotted to them respectively.
 
ARTICLE 242.
 
For the purposes of this Part, the Ottoman Public Debt shall be deemed to consist of the Debt heretofore governed by the Decree of Mouharrem, together with such other loans as are enumerated in Annex I to this Part.
 
Loans contracted before November 1, 1914, will be taken into account in the distribution of the Ottoman Public Debt between Turkey, the States of the Balkan Peninsula and the new States set up in Asia.
 
This distribution shall be effected in the following manner:
 
(I) Annuities arising from loans prior to October 17, 19l2 (Balkan Wars), shall be distributed between Turkey and the Balkan States, including Albania, which receive or have received any Turkish territory.
 
(2) The residue of the annuities for which Turkey remains liable after this distribution, together with those arising from loans contracted by Turkey between October 17, 19l2, and November 1, 1914, shall be distributed between Turkey and the States in whose favour territory is detached from Turkey under the present Treaty.
 
ARTICLE 243
 
The general principle to be adopted in determining the amount of the annuity to be paid by each State will be as follows:
 
The amount shall bear the same ratio to the total required for the service of the Debt as the average revenue of the transferred territory bore to the average revenue of the whole of Turkey (including in each case the yield of the Customs surtax imposed in the year 1907) over the three financial years 1909-10, 1910-11, and 1911-12.
 
ARTICLE 244
 
The Financial Commission shall, as soon as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty, determine in accordance with the principle laid down in Article 243 the amount of the annuities referred to in that Article, and communicate its decisions in this respect to the High Contracting Parties. 
 
The Financial Commission shall fulfil the functions provided for in Article 134 of the Treaty of Peace concluded with Bulgaria on November 27, 19l9.
 
ARTICLE 245.
 
The annuities assessed in the manner above provided will be payable as from the date of the coming into force of the Treaties by which the respective territories were detached from Turkey, and, in the case of territories detached under the present Treaty from March 1, 1920; they shall continue to be payable (except as provided by Article 252) until the final liquidation of the Debt. They shall, however, be proportionately reduced as the loans constituting the Debt are successively extinguished.
 
ARTICLE 246.
 
The Turkish Government transfers to the Financial Commission all its rights under the provisions of the Decree of Mouharrem and subsequent Decrees.
 
The Council of the Ottoman Public Debt shall consist of the British, French and Italian delegates, and of the representative of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, and shall continue to operate as heretofore. It shall administer and levy all revenues conceded to it under the Decree of Mouharrem and all other revenues the management of which has been entrusted to it in accordance with any other loan contracts previous to November 1, 1914.
 
The Allied Powers authorise the Council to give administrative assistance to the Turkish Ministry of Finance, under such conditions as may be determined by the Financial Commission with the object of realising as far as possible the following programme:
 
The system of direct levy of certain revenues by the existing Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt shall, within limits to be prescribed by the Financial Commission, be extended as widely as possible and applied throughout the provinces remaining Turkish. On each new creation of revenue or of indirect taxes approved by the Financial Commission, the Commission shal consider thepossibility of entrusting the administration thereof to the Council of the Debt for the account of the Turkish Government.
 
The administration of the Customs shall be under a Director-General appointed by and revocable by the Financial Commission and answerable to it. No change in the schedule of the Customs charges shall be made except with the approval of the Financial Commission.
 
The Governments of France, Great Britain and Italy will decide, by a majority and after consulting the bondholders whether the Council should be maintained or replaced by the Financial Commission or the expiry of the present term of the Council. The decision of the Governments shall be taken at least six months before the date corresponding to the expiry of this period.
 
ARTICLE 247.
 
The Commission has authority to propose, at a later date, the substitution for the pledges at present granted to bondholders, in accordance with their contracts or existing decrees, of other adequate pledges, or of a charge on the general revenues of Turkey. The Allied Governments undertake to consider any proposals the Financial Commission might then have to make on this subject.
 
ARTICLE 248.
 
All property, movable and immovable, belonging to the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, wherever situate, shall remain integrally at the disposal of that body.
 
The Council of the Debt shall have power to apply the value of any realised property for the purpose of extraordinary amortisation either of the Unified Debt or of the Lots Turcs.
 
ARTICLE 249.
 
The Turkish Government agrees to transfer to the Financial Commission all its rights in the Reserve Funds and the Tripoli Indemnity Fund.
 
ARTICLE 250.
 
A sum equal to the arrears of any revenues heretofore affected to the service of the Ottoman Public Debt within the territories remaining Turkish, which should have been but have not been paid to the Council of the Debt, shall (except where such territories have been in the military occupation of Allied forces and for the time of such occupation) be paid to the Council of the Debt by the Turkish Government as soon as in the opinion of the Financial Commission the financial condition of Turkey shall permit.
 
ARTICLE 251.
 
The Council of the Debt shall review all the transactions of the Council which have taken place during the war. Any disbursements made by the Council which were not in accordance with its powers and duties, as defined by the Decree of Mouharrem or otherwise before the war, shall be reimbursed to the Council of the Debt by the Turkish Government so soon as in the opinion of the Financial Commission such payment is possible. The Council shall have power to review any action on the part of the Council during the war, and to annul any obligation which in its opinion is prejudicial to the interests of the bondholders, and which was not in accordance with the powers of the Council of the Debt.
 
ARTICLE 252.
 
Any of the States which under the present Treaty are to contribute to the annual charge for the service of the Ottoman Public Debt may, upon giving six months’ notice to the Council of the Debt, redeem such obligation by payment of a sum representing the value of such annuity capitalised at such rate of interest as may be agreed between the State concerned and the Council of the Debt. The Council of the Debt shall not have power to require such redemption.
 
ARTICLE 253.
 
The sums in gold to be transferred by Germany and Austria under the provisions of Article 259 (1), (2), (4) and (7) of the Treaty of Peace with Germany, and under Article 210 (1) of the Treaty of Peace with Austria, shall be placed at the disposal of the Financial Commission.
 
ARTICLE 254.
 
The sums to be transferred by Germany in accordance with Article 259 (3) of the Treaty of Peace with Germany shall be placed forthwith at the disposal of the Council of the Debt.
 
ARTICLE 255.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to accept any decision that may be taken by the Allied Powers, in agreement when necessary with other Powers, regarding the funds of the Ottoman Sanitary Administration and the former Superior Council of Health, and in respect of the claim of the Superior Council of Health against the Turkish Government, as well as regarding the funds of the Lifeboat Service of the Black Sea and Bosphorus.
 
The Allied Powers hereby give authority to the Financial Commission to represent them in this matter.
 
ARTICLE 256.
 
The Turkish Government, in agreement with the Allied Powers, hereby releases the German Government from the obligation incurred by it during the war to accept Turkish Government currency notes at a specified rate of exchange in payment for goods to be exported to Turkey from Germany after the war.
 
ARTICLE 257.
 
As soon as the claims of the Allied Powers against the Turkish Government as laid down in this Part have been satisfied, and Ottoman pre-war Public Debt has been liquidated, the Financial Commission shall determine. The Turkish Government shall then consider in consultation with the Council of the League of Nations whether any further administrative advice and assistance should in the interests of Turkey be provided for the Turkish Government by the Powers, Members of the League of Nations, and, if so, in what form such advice and assistance shall be given.
 
ARTICLE 258.
 
(1) Turkey will deliver, in a seaworthy condition and in such ports of the Allied Powers as the Governments of the said Powers may determine all German ships transferred to the Turkish flag since August I, I9I4; these ships will be handed over to the Reparation Commission referred to in Article 233 of the Treaty of Peace with Germany, any transfer to a neutral flag during the war being regarded in this respect as void so far as concerns the Allied Powers.
 
(2) The Turkish Government will hand over at the same time as the ships referred to in paragraph (1) all papers and documents which the Reparation Commission referred to in the said paragraph may think necessary in order to ensure the complete transfer of the property in the vessels, free and quit of all liens, mortgages, encumbrances, charges or claims, whatever their nature.
 
The Turkish Government will effect any re-purchase or indemnisation which may be necessary. It will be the party responsible in the event of any proceedings for the recovery of, or in any claims against, the vessel to be handed over whatever their nature, the Turkish Government being bound in every case to guarantee the Reparation Commission referred to in paragraph (1) against any ejectment or proceedings upon any ground whatever arising under this head.
 
ARTICLE 259.
 
Without prejudice to Article 277, Part IX (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, Turkey renounces, so far as she is concerned, the benefit of any provisons of the Treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest or of the Treaties supplementary thereto.
 
Turkey undertakes to transfer either to Roumania or to the Principal Allied Powers, as the case may be, all monetary instruments, specie, securities and negotiable instruments or goods which she has received under the aforesaid Treaties.
 
ARTICLE 260.
 
The legislative measures required in order to give effect to the provisions of this Part will be enacted by the Turkish Government and by the Powers concerned within a period which must not exceed six months from the signature of the present Treaty.

The peace treaty that was signed in the Swiss town of Lausanne on July 24, 1923 between Turkey and the Allied powers that fought in the World War and in the subsequent Turkish War of Liberation. Lausanne superseded the stillborn Treaty of Sèvres, which was considered “unacceptable” by the newly-founded Turkish government replacing the monarchy in Istanbul.

The treaty delimited the boundaries of Greece and Turkey, confirmed those of Bulgaria and Turkey, Turkey ceded all its claims on Iraq and Syria, countries to which Lausanne gave their initial territorial shape.

TREATY OF PEACE WITH TURKEY SIGNED AT LAUSANNE
JULY 24, 1923
 
THE CONVENTION RESPECTING THE REGIME OF THE STRAITS AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS SIGNED AT LAUSANNE
 
THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, JAPAN, GREECE, ROUMANIA and the SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE,
 
of the one part,
 
and TURKEY,
 
of the other part; Being united in the desire to bring to a final close the state of war which has existed in the East since 1914,
 
 
Being anxious to re-establish the relations of friendship and commerce which are essential to the mutual well-being of their respective peoples,
 
 
And considering that these relations must be based on respect for the independence and sovereignty of States,
 
 
Have decided to conclude a Treaty for this purpose, and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
 
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA:
The Right Honourable Sir Horace George Montagu Rumbold, Baronet, G.C.M.G., High Commissioner at Constantinople;
 
 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC:
General Maurice Pelle, Ambassador of France, High Com missioner of the Republic in the East, Grand Officer of the National Order of the Legion of Honour;
 
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY:
The Honourable Marquis Camillo Garroni, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambassador of Italy, High Commissioner at Constantinople, Grand Cross of the Orders of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, and of the Crown of Italy;
 
 
M. Giulio Cesare Montagna, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Athens, Commander of the Orders of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Grand Officer of the Crown of Italy;
 
 
HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN:
Mr. Kentaro Otchiai, Jusammi, First Class of the Order of the Rising Sun, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Rome;
 
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES:
M. Eleftherios K. Veniselos, formerly President of the Council of Ministers, Grand Cross of the Order of the Saviour;
 
 
M. Demetrios Caclamanos, Minister Plenipotentiary at London, Commander of the Order of the Saviour;
 
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA:
M. Constantine I. Diamandy, Minister Plenipotentiary;
 
 
M. Constantine Contzesco, Minister Plenipotentiary;
 
 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS AND THE SLOVENES:
Dr. Miloutine Yovanovitch, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Berne;
 
 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF TURKEY:
Ismet Pasha, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Deputy for Adrianople; Dr. Riza Nour Bey, Minister for Health and for Public Assistance, Deputy for Sinope;Hassan Bey, formerly Minister, Deputy for Trebizond;
 
 
Who, having produced their full powers, found in good and due orm, have agreed as follows:
 
 
PART I.
POLITICAL CLAUSES.
ARTICLE I.
From the coming into force of the present Treaty, the state of peace will be definitely re-established between the British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State of the one part, and Turkey of the other part, as well as between their respective nationals. Official relations will be resumed on both sides and, in the respective territories, diplomatic and consular representatives will receive, without prejudice to such agreements as may be concluded in the future, treatment in accordance with the general principles of international law.
 
 
SECTION I.
I. TERRITORIAL CLAUSES.
ARTICLE 2.
From the Black Sea to the Aegean the frontier of Turkey is laid down as follows: (I) With Bulgaria:
 
From the mouth of the River Rezvaya, to the River Maritza, the point of junction of the three frontiers of Turkey, Bulgaria and Greece:
 
the southern frontier of Bulgaria as at present demarcated;
 
(2) With Greece:
 
Thence to the confluence of the Arda and the Marilza:
 
the course of the Maritza;
 
then upstream along the Arda, up to a point on that river to be determined on the spot in the immediate neighbourhood of the village of Tchorek-Keuy:
 
the course of the Arda;
 
thence in a south-easterly direction up to a point on the Maritza, 1 kilom. below Bosna-Keuy:
 
a roughly straight line leaving in Turkish territory the village of Bosna-Keuy. The village of Tchorek-Keuy shall be assigned to Greece or to Turkey according as the majority of the population shall be found to be Greek or Turkish by the Commission for which provision is made in Article 5, the population which has migrated into this village after the 11th October, 1922, not being taken into account;
 
thence to the Aegean Sea:
 
the course of the Maritza.
 
 
ARTICLE 3.
 
From the Mediterranean to the frontier of Persia, the frontier of Turkey is laid down as follows:
 
(I ) With Syria:
 
The frontier described in Article 8 of the Franco-Turkish Agreement of the 20th October, 1921
 
(2) With Iraq:
 
The frontier between Turkey and Iraq shall be laid down in friendly arrangement to be concluded between Turkey and Great Britain within nine months.
 
In the event of no agreement being reached between the two Governments within the time mentioned, the dispute shall be referred to the Council of the League of Nations.
 
The Turkish and British Governments reciprocally undertake that, pending the decision to be reached on the subject of the frontier, no military or other movement shall take place which might modify in any way the present state of the territories of which the final fate will depend upon that decision.
 
 
ARTICLE 4.
 
The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced on the one-in-a-million maps attached to the present Treaty. In case of divergence between the text and the map, the text will prevail. [See Introduction.]
 
 
ARTICLE 5.
 
A Boundary Commission will be appointed to trace on the ground the frontier defined in Article 2 (2). This Commission will be composed of representatives of Greece and of Turkey, each Power appointing one representative, and a president chosen by them from the nationals of a third Power.
 
They shall endeavour in all cases to follow as nearly as possible the descriptions given in the present Treaty, taking into account as far as possible administrative boundaries and local economic interests.
 
The decision of the Commission will be taken by a majority and shall be binding on the parties concerned.
 
The expenses of the Commission shall be borne in equal shares by the parties concerned.
 
 
ARTICLE 6.
 
In so far as concerns frontiers defined by a waterway as distinct from its banks, the phrases “course” or “channel” used in the descriptions of the present Treaty signify, as regards non-navigable rivers, the median line of the waterway or of its principal branch, and, as regards navigable rivers, the median line of the principal channel of navigation. It will rest with the Boundary Commission to specify whether the frontier line shall follow any changes of the course or channel which may take place, or whether it shall be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the time when the present Treaty comes into force.
 
In the absence of provisions to the contrary, in the present Treaty, islands and islets Iying within three miles of the coast are included within the frontier of the coastal State.
 
 
ARTICLE 7.
 
The various States concerned undertake to furnish to the Boundary Commission all documents necessary for its task, especially authentic copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large scale maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpublished, and information concerning the changes of frontier watercourses. The maps, geodetic data, and surveys, even if unpublished, which are in the possession of the Turkish authorities, must be delivered at Constantinople with the least possible delay from the coming into force of the present Treaty to the President of the Commission.
 
The States concerned also undertake to instruct the local authorities to communicate to the Commission all documents, especially plans, cadastral and land books, and to furnish on demand all details regarding property, existing economic conditions and other necessary information.
 
 
ARTICLE 8.
 
The various States interested undertake to give every assistance to the Boundary Commission, whether directly or through local authorities, in everything that concerns transport, accommodation, labour, materials (sign posts, boundary pillars) necessary for the accomplishment of its mission.
 
In particular, the Turkish Government undertakes to furnish, if required, the technical personnel necessary to assist the Boundary Commission in the accomplishment of its duties.
 
 
ARTICLE 9.
 
The various States interested undertake to safeguard the trigonometrical points, signals, posts or frontier marks erected by the Commission.
 
 
ARTICLE 10.
 
The pillars will be placed so as to be intervisible. They will be numbered, and their position and their number will be noted on a cartographic document.
 
 
ARTICLE 11.
 
The protocols defining the boundary and the maps and documents attached thereto will be made out in triplicate, of which two copies will be forwarded to the Governments of the limitrophe States, and the third to the Government of the French Republic, which will deliver authentic copies to the Powers who sign the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 12.
 
The decision taken on the 13th February, 1914, by the Conference of London, in virtue of Articles 5 of the Treaty of London of the 17th-30th May, 1913, and 15 of the Treaty of Athens of the 1st-14th November, 1913, which decision was communicated to the Greek Government on the 13th February, 1914, regarding the sovereignty of Greece over the islands of the Eastern Mediterranean, other than the islands of Imbros, Tenedos and Rabbit Islands, particularly the islands of Lemnos, Samothrace, Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria, is confirmed, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty respecting the islands placed under the sovereigntyof Italy which form the subject of Article 15.
 
Except where a provision to the contrary is contained in the present Treaty, the islands situated at less than three miles from the Asiatic coast remain under Turkish sovereignty.
 
 
ARTICLE 13.
 
With a view to ensuring the maintenance of peace, the Greek Government undertakes to observe the following restrictions in the islands of Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria:
 
(I) No naval base and no fortification will be established in the said islands.
 
(2) Greek military aircraft will be forbidden to fly over the territory of the Anatolian coast. Reciprocally, the Turkish Government will forbid their military aircraft to fly over the said islands.
 
(3) The Greek military forces in the said islands will be limited to the normal contingent called up for military service, which can be trained on the spot, as well as to a force of gendarmerie and police in proportion to the force of gendarmerie and police existing in the whole of the Greek territory.
 
 
ARTICLE 14.
 
The islands of Imbros and Tenedos, remaining under Turkish sovereignty, shall enjoy a special administrative organisation composed of local elements and furnishing every guarantee for the native non-Moslem population in so far as concerns local administration and the protection of persons and property. The maintenance of order will be assured therein by a police force recruited from amongst the local population by the local administration above provided for and placed under its orders.
 
The agreements which have been, or may be, concluded between Greece and Turkey relating to the exchange of the Greek and Turkish populations will not be applied to the inhabitants of the islands of Imbros and Tenedos.
 
 
ARTICLE 15.
 
Turkey renounces in favour of Italy all rights and title over the following islands: Stampalia (Astrapalia), Rhodes (Rhodos), Calki (Kharki), Scarpanto, Casos (Casso), Piscopis (Tilos), Misiros (Nisyros), Calimnos (Kalymnos), Leros, Patmos, Lipsos (Lipso), Simi (Symi), and Cos (Kos), which are now occupied by Italy, and the islets dependent thereon, and also over the island of Castellorizzo.
 
 
ARTICLE I6.
 
Turkey hereby renounces all rights and title whatsoever over or respecting the territories situated outside the frontiers laid down in the present Treaty and the islands other than those over which her sovereignty is recognised by the said Treaty, the future of these territories and islands being settled or to be settled by the parties concerned.
 
The provisions of the present Article do not prejudice any special arrangements arising from neighbourly relations which have been or may be concluded between Turkey and any limitrophe countries.
 
 
ARTICLE 17.
 
The renunciation by Turkey of all rights and titles over Egypt and over the Soudan will take effect as from the 5th November, 1914.
 
 
ARTICLE 18.
 
Turkey is released from all undertakings and obligations in regard to the Ottoman loans guaranteed on the Egyptian tribute, that is to say, the loans of 1855, 1891 and 1894. The annual payments made by Egypt for the service of these loans now forming part of the service of the Egyptian Public Debt, Egypt is freed from all other obligations relating to the Ottoman Public Debt.
 
 
ARTICLE 19.
 
Any questions arising from the recognition of the State of Egypt shall be settled by agreements to be negotiated subsequently in a manner to be determined later between the Powers concerned. The provisions of the present Treaty relating to territories detached from Turkey under the said Treaty will not apply to Egypt.
 
 
ARTICLE 20.
 
Turkey hereby recognises the annexation of Cyprus proclaimed by the British Government on the sth November, 1914.
 
 
ARTICLE 2I .
 
Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus on the 5th November, 1914, will acquire British nationality subject to the conditions laid down in the local law, and will thereupon lose their Turkish nationality. They will, however, have the right to opt for Turkish nationality within two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, provided that they leave Cyprus within twelve months after having so opted.
 
Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus on the coming into force of the present Treaty who, at that date, have acquired or are in process of acquiring British nationality in consequence of a request made in accordance with the local law, will also thereupon lose their Turkish nationality.
 
It is understood that the Government of Cyprus will be entitled to refuse British nationality to inhabitants of the island who, being Turkish nationals, had formerly acquired another nationality without the consent of the Turkish Government.
 
 
ARTICLE 22.
 
Without prejudice to the general stipulations of Article 27, Turkey hereby recognises the definite abolition of all rights and privileges whatsoever which she enjoyed in Libya under the Treaty of Lausanne of the 18th October, 1912, and the instruments connected therewith.
 
 
2. SPECIAL PROVISIONS.
ARTICLE 23.
 
The High Contracting Parties are agreed to recognise and declare the principle of freedom of transit and of navigation, by sea and by air, in time of peace as in time of war, in the strait of the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmora and the Bosphorus, as prescribed in the separate Convention signed this day, regarding the regime of the Straits. This Convention will have the same force and effect in so far as the present High Contracting Parties are concerned as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 24.
 
The separate Convention signed this day respecting the regime for the frontier described in Article 2 of the present Treaty will have equal force and effect in so far as the present High Contracting Parties are concerned as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 25.
 
Turkey undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of Peace and additional Conventions concluded by the other Contracting Powers with the Powers who fought on the side of Turkey, and to recognise whatever dispositions have been or may be made concerning the territories of the former German Empire, of Austria, of Hungary and of Bulgaria, and to recognise the new States within their frontiers as there laid down.
 
 
ARTICLE 26.
 
Turkey hereby recognises and accepts the frontiers of Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and the Czechoslovak State, as these frontiers have been or may be determined by the Treaties referred to in Article 25 or by any supplementary conventions.
 
 
ARTICLE 27.
 
No power or jurisdiction in political, legislative or administrative matters shall be exercised outside Turkish territory by the Turkish Government or authorities, for any reason whatsoever, over the nationals of a territory placed under the sovereignty or protectorate of the other Powers signatory of the present Treaty, or over the nationals of a territory detached from Turkey.
 
It is understood that the spiritual attributions of the Moslem religious authorities are in no way infringed.
 
 
ARTICLE 28.
 
Each of the High Contracting Parties hereby accepts, in so far as it is concerned, the complete abolition of the Capitulations in Turkey in every respect.
 
 
ARTICLE 29.
 
Moroccans, who are French nationals (“ressortissants”) and Tunisians shall enjoy in Turkey the same treatment in all respects as other French nationals (“ressortissants”).
 
Natives (“ressortissants”) of Libya shall enjoy in Turkey the same treatment in all respects as other Italian nationals (“ressortissants”) .
 
The stipulations of the present Article in no way prejudge the nationality of persons of Tunisian, Libyan and Moroccan origin established in Turkey.
 
Reciprocally, in the territories the inhabitants of which benefit by the stipulations of the first and second paragraphs of this Article, Turkish nationals shall benefit by the same treatment as in France and in Italy respectively.
 
The treatment to which merchandise originating in or destined for the territories, the inhabitants of which benefit from the stipulations of the first paragraph of this Article, shall be subject in Turkey, and, reciprocally, the treatment to which merchandise originating in or destined for Turkey shall be subject in the said territories shall be settled by agreement between the French and Turkish Governments.
 
 
SECTION II .
NATIONALITY.
ARTICLE 30.
Turkish subjects habitually resident in territory which in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty is detached from Turkey will become ipsofacto, in the conditions laid down by the local law, nationals of the State to which such territory is transferred.
 
 
ARTICLE 31.
 
Persons over eighteen years of age, losing their Turkish nationality and obtaining ipso facto a new nationality under Article 30, shall be entitled within a period of two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty to opt for Turkish nationality.
 
 
ARTICLE 32.
 
Persons over eighteen years of age, habitually resident in territory detached from Turkey in accordance with the present Treaty, and differing in race from the majority of the population of such territory shall, within two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, be entitled to opt for the nationality of one of the States in which the majority of the population is of the same race as the person exercising the right to opt, subject to the consent of that State.
 
 
ARTICLE 33.
 
Persons who have exercised the right to opt in accordance with the provisions of Articles 31 and 32 must, within the succeeding twelve months, transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have opted.
 
They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the territory of the other State where they had their place of residence before exercising their right to opt.
 
They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export or import duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.
 
 
ARTICLE 34.
 
Subject to any agreements which it may be necessary to conclude between the Governments exercising authority in the countries detached from Turkey and the Governments of the countries where the persons concerned are resident, Turkish nationals of over eighteen years of age who are natives of a territory detached from Turkey under the present Treaty, and who on its coming into force are habitually resident abroad, may opt for the nationality of the territory of which they are natives, if they belong by race to the majority of the population of that territory, and subject to theconsent of the Government exercising authority therein. This right of option must be exercised within two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 35.
 
The Contracting Powers undertake to put no hindrance in the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have under the present Treaty, or under the Treaties of Peace concluded with Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary, or under any Treaty concluded by the said Powers, other than Turkey, or any of them, with Russia, or between themselves, to choose any other nationality which may be open to them.
 
 
ARTICLE 36.
 
For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of a married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and the status of children under eighteen years of age by that of their parents.
 
 
SECTION III.
PROTECTION OF MINORITIES.
ARTICLE 37.
Turkey undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 38 to 44 shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, no regulation, nor official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation, nor official action prevail over them.
 
 
ARTICLE 38.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to ali inhabitants of Turkey without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.
 
All inhabitants of Turkey shall be entitled to free exercise, whether in public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, the observance of which shall not be incompatible with public order and good morals.
 
Non-Moslem minorities will enjoy full freedom of movement and of emigration, subject to the measures applied, on the whole or on part of the territory, to all Turkish nationals, and which may be taken by the Turkish Government for national defence, or for the maintenance of public order.
 
 
ARTICLE 39.
 
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities will enjoy the same civil and political rights as Moslems.
 
All the inhabitants of Turkey, without distinction of religion, shall be equal before the law.
 
Differences of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any Turkish national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights, as, for instance, admission to public employments, functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries.
 
No restrictions shall be imposed on the free use by any Turkish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, religion, in the press, or in publications of any kind or at public meetings.
 
Notwithstanding the existence of the official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Turkish nationals of non-Turkish speech for the oral use of their own language before the Courts.
 
 
ARTICLE 40.
 
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as other Turkish nationals. In particular, they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense, any charitable, religious and social institutions, any schools and other establishments for instruction and education, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their own religion freely therein.
 
 
ARTICLE 41.
 
As regards public instruction, the Turkish Government will grant in those towns and districts, where a considerable proportion of non-Moslem nationals are resident, adequate facilities for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be given to the children of such Turkish nationals through the medium of their own language. This provision will not prevent the Turkish Government from making the teaching of the Turkish language obligatory in the said schools.
 
In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application of the sums which may be provided out of public funds under the State, municipal or other budgets for educational, religious, or charitable purposes.
 
The sums in question shall be paid to the qualified representatives of the establishments and institutions concerned.
 
 
ARTICLE 42.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to take, as regards non-Moslem minorities, in so far as concerns their family law or personal status, measures permitting the settlement of these questions in accordance with the customs of those minorities.
 
These measures will be elaborated by special Commissions composed of representatives of the Turkish Government and of representatives of each of the minorities concerned in equal number. In case of divergence, the Turkish Government and the Council of the League of Nations will appoint in agreement an umpire chosen from amongst European lawyers.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to grant full protection to the churches, synagogues, cemeteries, and other religious establishments of the above-mentioned minorities. All facilities and authorisation will be granted to the pious foundations, and to the religious and charitable institutions of the said minorities at present existing in Turkey, and the Turkish Government will not refuse, for the formation of new religious and charitable institu- tions, any of the necessary facilities which are guaranteed to other private institutions of that nature.
 
 
ARTICLE 43.
 
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall not be compelled to perform any act which constitutes a violation of their faith or religious observances, and shall not be placed under any disability by reason of their refusal to attend Courts of Law or to perform any legal business on their weekly day of rest.
 
This provision, however, shall not exempt such Turkish nationals from such obligations as shall be imposed upon all other Turkish nationals for the preservation of public order.
 
 
ARTICLE 44.
 
Turkey agrees that, in so far as the preceding Articles of this Section affect non-Moslem nationals of Turkey, these provisions constitute obligations of international concern and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations. They shall not be modified without the assent of the majority of the Council of the League of Nations. The British Empire, France, Italy and Japan hereby agree not to withhold their assent to any modification in these Articles which is in due form assented to by a majority of the Council of the League of Nations.
 
Turkey agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council any infraction or danger of infraction of any of these obligations, and that the Council may thereupon take such action and give such directions as it may deem proper and effective in the circumstances.
 
Turkey further agrees that any difference of opinion as to questions of law or of fact arising out of these Articles between the Turkish Government and any one of the other Signatory Powers or any other Power, a member of the Council of the League of Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international character under Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The Turkish Government hereby consents that any such dispute shall, if the other party thereto demands, be referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall have the same force and effect as an award under Article 13 of the Covenant.
 
 
ARTICLE 45.
 
The rights conferred by the provisions of the present Section on the non-Moslem minorities of Turkey will be similarly conferred by Greece on the Moslem minority in her territory.
 
 
PART II.
FINANCIAL CLAUSES.
SECTION I.
OTTOMAN PUBLIC DEBT.
ARTICLE 46.
The Ottoman Public Debt, as defined in the Table annexed to the present Section, shall be distributed under the conditions laid down in the present Section between Turkey, the States in favour of which territory has been detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars of 1912-13, the States to which the islands referred to in Articles 12 and 15 of the present Treaty and the territory referred to in the last paragraph of the present Article have been attributed, and the States newly created in territories in Asia which are detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty. All the above St ates shall also participate, under the conditions laid down in the present Section, in the annual charges for the service of the Ottoman Public Debt from the dates referred to in Article 53.
 
From the dates laid down in Article 53, Turkey shall not be held in any way whatsoever responsible for the shares of the Debt for which other States are liable.
 
For the purpose of the distribution of the Ottoman Public Debt, that portion of the territory of Thrace which was under Turkish sovereignty on the 1st August, 1914, and lies outside the boundaries of Turkey as laid down by Article 2 of the present Treaty, shall be deemed to be detached from the Ottoman Empire under the said Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 47.
 
The Council of the Ottoman Public Debt shall, within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, determine, on the basis laid down by Articles 50 and 51, the amounts of the annuities for the loans referred to in Part A of the Table annexed to the present Section which are payable by each of the States concerned, and shall notify to them this amount.
 
These States shall be granted an opportunity to send to Constantinople delegates to check the calculations made for this purpose by the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt.
 
The Council of the Debt shall exercise the functions referred to in Article 134 of the Treaty of Peace with Bulgaria of the 27th November, 1919.
 
Any disputes which may arise between the parties concerned as to the application of the principles laid down in the present Article shall be referred, not more than one month after the notification referred to in the first paragraph, to an arbitrator whom the Council of the League of Nations will be asked to appoint; this arbitrator shall give his decision within a period of not more than three months. The remuneration of the arbitrator shall be determined by the Council of the League of Nations, and shall, together with the other expenses of the arbitration, be borne by the parties concerned. The decisions of the arbitrator shall be final. The payment of the annuities shall not be suspended by the reference of any disputes to the above-mentioned arbitrator.
 
 
ARTICLE 48.
 
The States, other than Turkey, among which the Ottoman Public Debt, as defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section is attributed, shall, within three months from the date on which they are notified, in accordance with Article 47, of their respective shares in the annual charges referred to in that Article, assign to the Council of the Debt adequate security for the payment of their share. If such security is not assigned within the above-mentioned period, or in the case of any disagreement as to the adequacy of the security assigned, any of the Governments signatory to the present Treaty shall be entitled to appeal to the Council of the League of Nations.
 
The Council of the League of Nations shall be empowered to entrust the collection of the revenues assigned as security to international financial organisations existing in the countries (other than Turkey) among which the Debt is distributed. The decisions of the Council of the League of Nations shall be final.
 
 
ARTICLE 49
 
Within one month from the date of the final determination under Article 47 of the amount of the annuities for which each of the States concerned is liable, a Commission shall meet in Paris to determine the method of carrying out the distribution of the nominal capital of the Ottoman Public Debt as defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section. This distribution shall be made in accordance with the proportions adopted for the division of the annuities, and account shall be taken of the terms of the agreements governing the loans and of the provisions of this Section.
 
The Commission referred to in the first paragraph shall consist of a representative of the Turkish Government, a representative of the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt, a representative of the debt other than the Unified Debt and the Lots Turcs; each of the Governments concerned shall also be entitled to appoint a representative. All questions in regard to which the Commission may be unable to reach agreement shall be referred to the arbitrator referred to in the fourth paragraph of Article 47.
 
If Turkey shall decide to create new securities in respect of her share, the distribution of the capital of the Ottoman Public Debt shall be made in the first instance as it affects Turkey by a Committee consisting of the representative of the Turkish Government, the representative of the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt and the representative of the debt other than the Unified Debt and the Lots Turcs. The new securities shall be delivered to the Commission, which shall ensure their delivery to the bondholders upon such terms as will provide for the release of Turkey from liability and the rights of the bondholders towards the other States which are liable for a share of the Ottoman Public Debt. The securities issued in respect of the share of each State in the Ottoman Public Debt shall be exempt in the territory of the High Contracting Parties from all stamp duties or other taxes which would be involved by such issue.
 
The payment of the annuities for which each of the States concerned is liable shall not be postponed as a consequence of the provisions of the present Article in regard to the distribution of the nominal capital.
 
 
ARTICLE 50.
 
The distribution of the annual charges referred to in Article 47 and of the nominal capital of the Ottoman Public Debt mentioned in Article 49 shall be effected in the following manner:
 
(1) The loans prior to the 17th October, 1912, and the annuities of such loans shall be distributed between the Ottoman Empire as it existed after the Balkan wars of 1912-13, the Balkan States in favour of which territory was detached from the Ottoman Empire after those wars, and the States to which the islands referred to in Articles 12 and 15 of the present Treaty have been attributed; account shall be taken of the territorial changes which have taken place after the coming into force of the treaties which ended those wars or subsequent treaties.
 
(2) The residue of the loans for which the Ottoman Empire remained liable after this first distribution and the residue of the annuities of such loans, together with the loans contracted by that Empire between the 17th October, 1912, and the 1st November, 1914, and the annuities of such loans shall be distributed between Turkey, the newly created States in Asia in favour of which a territory has been detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, and the State to which the territory referred to in the last paragraph of Article 46 of the said Treaty has been attributed.
 
The distribution of the capital shall in the case of each loan be based on the capital amount outstanding at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 51 .
 
The amount of the share in the annual charges of the Ottoman Public Debt for which each State concerned is liable in conse- quence of the distribution provided for by Article 50 shall be determined as follows:
 
(I) As regards the distribution provided for by Article 50 (1), in the first place the share of the islands referred to in Articles 12 and 15 and of the territories detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars, taken together, shall be fixed. The amount of this share shall bear the same proportion to the total sum of the annuities to be distributed in accordance with Article 50 (1) as the average total revenue of the above mentioned islands and territories, taken as a whole, bore to the average total revenue of the Ottoman Empire in the financial years 1910-1911 and 1911-1912, including the proceeds of the customs surtaxes established in 1907.
 
The amount thus determined shall then be distributed among the States to which the territories referred to in the preceding paragraph have been attributed, and the share for which each of these States will thus be made liable shall bear the same proportion to the total amount so distributed as the average total revenue of the territory attributed to each State bore in the financial years 1910-11 and 1911-12 to the average total revenue of the territories detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan Wars and the islands referred to in Articles 12 and 15. In calculating the revenues referred to in this paragraph, customs revenues shall be excluded.
 
(2) As regards the territories detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty (including the territory referred to in the last paragraph of Article 46), the amount of the share of each State concerned shall bear the same proportion to the total sum of the annuities to be distributed in accordance with Article 50 (2) as the average total revenue of the detached territory (including the proceeds of the Customs surtax established in 1907) for the financial years 1910-11 and 1911-12 bore to the average total revenue of the Ottoman Empire, excluding the territories and islands referred to in paragraph (I) of this Article.
 
 
ARTICLE 52.
 
The advances referred to in Part B of the Table annexed to the present Section shall be distributed between Turkey and the other States referred to in Article 46 under the following conditions:
 
(I) As regards the advances referred to in the Table which existed on the 17th October, 1912, the capital amount, if any, outstanding at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, together with the interest from the dates mentioned in the first paragraph of Article 53 and the repayments made since those dates, shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of Article 50 (I) and Article 51 (1).
 
(2) As regards the amounts for which the Ottoman Empire remains liable after the first distribution and the advances referred to in the Table which were contracted by the said Empire between the 17th October, 1912, and the 1st November, 1914, the capital amount, if any, outstanding at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, together with the interest from the 1st March, 1920, and the repayments made since that date, shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of Article 50 (2) and Article 51 (2).
 
The Council of the Ottoman Public Debt shall, within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, determine the amount of the share in these advances for which each of the States concerned is liable, and notify them of such amount.
 
The sums for which States other than Turkey are liable shall be paid by those States to the Council of the Debt and shall be paid by the Council to the creditors, or credited to the Turkish Government up to the amount paid by Turkey, by way of interest or repayment, for the account of those States.
 
The payments referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be made by five equal annuities from the coming into force of the present Treaty. Such portion of these payments as is payable to the creditors of the Ottoman Empire shall bear interest at the rates laid down in the contracts governing the advances; the portion to be credited to the Turkish Government shall be paid without interest.
 
 
ARTICLE 53.
 
The annuities for the service of the loans of the Ottoman Public Debt (as defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section) due by the States in favour of which a territory has been detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars, shall be payable as from the coming into force of the treaties by which the respective territories were transferred to those States. In the case of the islands referred to in Article 12, the annuity shall be payable as from the 1st/14th November, 1913, and, in the case of the islands referred to in Article 15, as from the 17th October, 1912.
 
The annuities due by the States newly created in territories in Asia detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, and by the State to which the territory referred to in the last paragraph of Article 46 has been attributed, shall be payable as from the 1st March, 1920.
 
 
ARTICLE 54.
 
The Treasury Bills of 1911, 1912 and 1913 included in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section shall be repaid, with interest at the agreed rate, within ten years from the dates fixed by the contracts.
 
 
ARTICLE 55.
 
The States referred to in Article 46, including Turkey, shall pay to the Ottoman Debt Council the amount of the annuities required for the service of their share of the Ottoman Public Debt (as defined in Part A of the Table annexed to this Section) to the extent that such annuities have remained unpaid as from the dates laid down by Article 53. This payment shall be made, without interest, by means of twenty equal annuities from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
The amount of the annuities paid to the Council of the Debt by the States other than Turkey shall, to the extent that they represent payments made by Turkey for the account of those States, be credited to Turkey on account of the arrears with which she is debited.
 
 
ARTICLE 56.
 
The Council of the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt shall no longer include delegates of the German, Austrian and Hungarian bondholders.
 
 
ARTICLE 57.
 
Limits of time fixed for the presentation of coupons of or claims for interest upon the loans and advances of the Ottoman Public Debt and the Turkish Loans of 1855, 1891 and 1894 secured on the Egyptian tribute, and the limits of time fixed for the presentation of securities of these loans drawn for repayment, shall, on the territory of the High Contracting Parties, be considered as having been suspended from the 29th October, 1914, until three months after the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ANNEX I TO SECTION I.
Table of the Ottoman Pre-War Public Debt (November 1, 1914).
Part A.
 
Loan Date of Contract Interest % Date of Redemption Bank of Issue
12345
Unified Debt1-14.9.1903–8-21.6.19064—-
Osmanie18-30.4.189041931Imperial Ottoman Bank
Tombac priority26.4-8.5.189341954Imperial Ottoman Bank
40,000,000fr (Oriental Railways)I-13.3.189441957Deutsche Bank and its group, Including International Bank and two French banks.
5%, 189629.2-12.3.189651946Imperial Ottoman Bank
Customs, 190217-29.5.1886-28.9-11.10.190241958Imperial Ottoman Bank
4%, 1903 (Fisheries)3.10.1888-21.2-6.3.1903.41958Deutsche Bank
Bagdad, Series 120.2-5.3.190342001Deutsche Bank
4%, 19044-17.9.190341960Imperial Ottoman Bank
4%, 1901-190521.11-4.12.1901-6. 11.1903-25. 4-8.5.190541961Imperial Ottoman Bank
Tedjhizat-Askerie4-17.4.190541961Deutsche Bank
Bagdad, Series II20.5-2.6.190842006Deutsche Bank
Bagdad, Series III20.5-2.6.190842010Deutsche Bank
4%, 19086-19.9.190841965Imperial Ottoman Bank
4%, 190930.9-13.10.190941950Imperial Ottoman Bank
Soma-Panderma20.11-3.12.191041992Imperial Ottoman Bank
Hodeida-Sanaa24.2-9.3.191142006Banque francaise
Customs 191127.10-9.11.191041952Deutsche Bank and its group
Plain of Koniah irrigation5-18.1913–1932–
Docks, arsenals and naval constructions19.11-2 12.19135 1/21943–
5%, 191413-26.4.19145(1962)Imperial Ottoman Bank
Avance Régie des Tabacs4.8.1913——
Treasury Bills, 5% 1911 (purchase of warships)13-7.191151916*National Bank of Turkey
Treasury Bills, Imperial8.21.11.191261915*Imperial Ottoman Bank
Treasury Bills, 1913 (induding the bills issued directly)19.1-1.2.191351918*Périer and Co.
 
*See Article 54.
 
 
Part B.
 
Advance Date of Contract Interest % Original Nominal Capital £ T
Bagdad Railway Company3/16 June, 19087300,000
Lighthouse Administration5/18 August, 1904855,000
Lighthouse Administration5/18 July, 19077300,000
Constanza Cable Company27/9 October, 1904417,335
Tunnel Company—-3,000
Orphan’s FundVarious dates–153,147
Deutsche Bank13/26 August, 19125.533,000
Lighthouse Administration3/16 April, 19137500,000
Anatolia Railway Company23/5 March, 19146200,000
 
 
SECTION II.
MISCELLANEOUS CLAUSES.
ARTICLE 58.
Turkey, on the one hand, and the other Contracting Powers (except Greece) on the other hand, reciprocally renounce all pecuniary claims for the loss and damage suffered respectively by Turkey and the said Powers and by their nationals (including juridical persons) between the 1st August, 1914, and the coming into force of the present Treaty, as the result of acts of war or measures of requisition, sequestration, disposal or confiscation.
 
Nevertheless, the above provisions are without prejudice to the provisions of Part III (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.
 
Turkey renounces in favour of the other Contracting Parties (except Greece) any right in the sums in gold transferred by Germany and Austria under Article 259 (I) of the Treaty of Peace of the 28th June, I9I9, with Germany, and under Article 210 (I) of the Treaty of Peace of the 10th September, 1919, with Austria.
 
The Council of the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt is freed from all liability to make the payments which it was required to make by the Agreement of the 20th June, 1331 (3rd July, 1915) relating to the first issue of Turkish currency notes or by the words inscribed on the back of such notes.
 
Turkey also agrees not to claim from the British Government or its nationals the repayment of the sums paid for the warships ordered in England by the Ottoman Government which were requisitioned by the British Government in 1914, and renounces all claims in the matter.
 
 
ARTICLE 59.
 
Greece recognises her obligation to make reparation for the damage caused in Anatolia by the acts of the Greek army or administration which were contrary to the laws of war.
 
On the other hand, Turkey, in consideration of the financial situation of Greece resulting from the prolongation of the war and from its consequences, finally renounces all claims for reparation against the Greek Government.
 
 
ARTICLE 60.
 
The States in favour of which territory was or is detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars or by the present Treaty shall acquire, without payment, all the property and possessions of the Ottoman Empire situated therein.
 
It is understood that the property and possessions of which the transfer from the Civil List to the State was laid down by the Irades of the 26th August, 1324 (8th September, I908) and the 20th April, 1325 (2nd May, I909), and also those which, on the 30th October, 1918, were administered by the Civil List for the benefit of a public service, are included among the property and possessions referred to in the preceding paragraph, the aforesaid States being subrogated to the Ottoman Empire in regard to the property and possessions in question. The Wakfs created on such property shall be maintained.
 
The dispute which has arisen between the Greek and Turkish Governments relating to property and possessions which have passed from the Civil List to the State and are situated in territories of the former Ottoman Empire transferred to Greece either after the Balkan wars, or subsequently, shall be referred to an arbitral tribunal at The Hague, in accordance with the special protocol No. 2 annexed to the Treaty of Athens of the 1st-4th November, 1913. The terms of reference shall be settled between the two Governments.
 
The provisions of this Article will not modify the juridical nature of the property and possessions registered in the name of the Civil List or administered by it, which are not referred to in the second and third paragraphs above.
 
 
ARTICLE 61.
 
The recipients of Turkish civil and military pensions who acquire under the present Treaty the nationality of a State other than Turkey, shall have no claim against the Turkish Government in respect of their pensions.
 
 
ARTICLE 62.
 
Turkey recognises the transfer of any claims to payment or repayment which Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary may have against her, in accordance with Article 261 of the Treaty of Peace concluded at Versailles on the 28th June, 1919, with Germany, and the corresponding articles of the Treaties of Peace of the l0th September, 1919, with Austria; of the 27th November, 1919, with Bulgaria; and of the 4th June, 1920 with Hungary.
 
The other Contracting Powers agree to release Turkey from the debts for which she is liable on this account.
 
The claims which Turkey has against Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary, are also transferred to the aforesaid Contracting Powers.
 
 
ARTICLE 63.
 
The Turkish Government, in agreement with the other Contracting Powers, hereby releases the German Government from the obligation incurred by it during the war to accept Turkish Government currency notes at a specified rate of exchange in payment for goods to be exported to Turkey from Germany after the war.
 
 
PART III.
ECONOMIC CLAUSES.
ARTICLE 64.
In this part, the expression “Allied Powers” means the Contracting Powers other than Turkey.
 
The term “Allied nationals” includes physical persons, companies and associations of the Contracting Powers other than Turkey, or of a State or territory under the protection of one of the said Powers.
 
The provisions of this Part relating to “Allied nationals” shall benefit persons who without having the nationality of one of the Allied Powers, have, in consequence of the protection which they in fact enjoyed at the hands of these Powers, received from the Ottoman authorities the same treatment as Allied nationals and have, on this account, been prejudiced.
 
 
SECTION I.
PROPERTY, RIGHTS AND INTERESTS.
ARTICLE 65.
Property, rights and interests which still exist and can be identified in territories remaining Turkish at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, and which belong to persons who on the 29th October, 1914, were Allied nationals, shall be immediately restored to the owners in their existing state.
 
Reciprocally, property, rights and interests which still exist and can be identified in territories subject to the sovereignty or protectorate of the Allied Powers on the 29th October, 1914, or in territories detached from the Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars and subject to-day to the sovereignty of any such Power, and which belong to Turkish nationals, shall be immediately restored to the owners in their existing state. The same provision shall apply to property, rights and interests which belong to Turkish nationals in territories detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, and which may have been subjected to liquidation or any other exceptional measure whatever on the part of the authorities of the Allied Powers.
 
All property, rights and interests situated in territory detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty, which, after having been subjected by the Ottoman Government to an exceptional war measure, are now in the hands of the Contracting Power exercising authority over the said territory, and which can be identified, shall be restored to their legitimate owners, in their existing state. The same provision shall apply to immovable property which may have been liquidated by the Contracting Power exercising authority over the said territory. All other claims between individuals shall be submitted to the competent local courts.
 
All disputes relating to the identity or the restitution of property to which a claim is made shall be submitted to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section V of this Part.
 
 
ARTICLE 66.
 
In order to give effect to the provisions of the first and second paragraphs of Article 65 the High Contracting Parties will, by the most rapid procedure, restore the owners to the possession of their property, rights and interests free from any burdens or encumbrances with which such property, rights and interests may have been charged without the consent of the said owners. It will be the duty of the Government of the Power effecting the restitution to provide for the compensation of third parties who may have acquired the property directly or indirectly from the said Government and who may be injured by this restitution. Disputes which may arise in connection with such compensation shall be dealt with by the ordinary courts.
 
In all other cases it will be open to any third parties who may be injured to take action against whoever is responsible, in order to obtain compensation.
 
In order to give effect to these provisions all acts of transfer or other exceptional war measures, which the High Contracting Parties may have carried out in respect of enemy property, rights and interests, shall be immediately cancelled and stayed when liquidation has not yet been completed. Owners who make claims shall be satisfied by the immediate restitution of their property, rights and interests as soon as these shall have been identified.
 
When at the date of the signature of the present Treaty the property, rights and interests, the restitution of which is provided for in Article 65. have been liquidated by the authorities of one of the High Contracting Parties, that Party shall be discharged from the obligation to restore the said property, rights and interests by payment of the proceeds of the liquidation to the owner. If, on application being made by the owner, the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Section V finds that the liquidation was not effected in such conditions as to ensure the realisation of a fair price, it will have the power, in default of agreement between the parties, to order the addition to the proceeds of the liquidation of such amount as it shall consider equitable. The said property, rights and interests shall be restored if the payment is not made within two months from the agreement with the owner or from the decision of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal mentioned above.
 
 
ARTICLE 67.
 
Greece, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State on the one hand, and Turkey on the other hand undertake mutually to facilitate, both by appropriate administrative measures and by the delivery of all documents relating thereto, the search on their territory for, and the restitution of, movable property of every kind taken away, seized or sequestrated by their armies or administrations in the territory of Turkey, or in the territory of Greece, Roumania or the Serb-Croat-Slovene State respectively, which are actually within the territories in question.
 
Such search and restitution will take place also as regards property of the nature referred to above seized or sequestrated by German, Austro-Hungarian or Bulgarian armies or administrations in the territory of Greece, Roumania or the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, which has been assigned to Turkey or to her nationals, as well as to property seized or sequestrated by the Greek, Roumanian or Serbian armies in Turkish territory, which has been assigned to Greece, Roumania or the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or to their nationals.
 
Applications relating to such search and restitution must be made within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 68.
 
Debts arising out of contracts concluded, in districts in Turkey occupied by the Greek army, between the Greek authorities and administrations on the one hand and Turkish nationals on the other, shall be paid by the Greek Government in accordance with the provisions of the said contracts.
 
 
ARTICLE 69.
 
No charge, tax or surtax to which, by virtue of the privileges which they enjoyed on the 1st August, 1914, Allied nationals and their property were not subject, shall be collected from Allied subjects or their property in respect of the financial years earlier than the financial year 1922-23.
 
If any sums have been collected after the 15th May, 1923, in respect of financial years earlier than the financial year 1922-l923, the amount shall be refunded to the persons concerned, as soon as the present Treaty comes into force.
 
No claim for repayment shall be made as regards sums encashed before the 15th May, 1923.
 
 
ARTICLE 70.
 
Claims based on Articles 65, 66 and 69 must be lodged with the competent authorities within six months, and, in default of agreement, with the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal within twelve months, from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 7I.
 
The British Empire, France, [taly, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or their nationals having begun claims or suits with regard to their property, rights and interests against the Ottoman Government before the 29th October, 1914, the provisions of this Section will not prejudice such claims or suits.
 
Claims or suits begun against the British, French, Italian, Roumanian or Serb-Croat-Slovene Governments by the Ottoman Government or its nationals will similarly not be prejudiced. These claims or suits will be continued against the Turkish Government and against the other Governments mentioned in this Article under the conditions existing before the 29th October, I9I4, due regard being had to the abolition of the Capitulations.
 
 
ARTICLE 72.
 
In the territories which remain Turkish by virtue of the present Treaty, property, rights and interests belonging to Germany, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria or to their nationals, which before the coming into force of the present Treaty have been seized or occupied by the Allied Governments, shall remain in the possession of tlxese Governments until the conclusion of arrangements between them and the German, Austrian, Hungarian and Bulgarian Governments or their nationals who are concerned. If the above-mentioned property, rights and interests have been liquidated, such liquidation is confirmed.
 
In the territories detached from Turkey under the present Treaty, the Governments exercising authority there shall have power, within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to liquidate the property, rights and interests belonging to Germany, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria or to their nationals.
 
The proceeds of liquidations, whether they have already been carried out or not, shall be paid to the Reparation Commission established by the Treaty of Peace concluded with the States concerned, if the property liquidated belongs to the German, Austrian, Hungarian or Bulgarian State. In the case of liquidation of private property, the proceeds of liquidation shall be paid to the owners direct.
 
The provisions of this Article do not apply to Ottoman limited Companies.
 
The Turkish Government shall be in no way responsible for the measures referred to in the present Article.
 
 
SECTION II .
CONTRACTS, PRESCRIPTIONS AND JUDGMENTS.
ARTICLE 73.
The following classes of contracts concluded, before the date mentioned in Article 82, between persons who thereafter became enemies as defined in that Article, remain in force subject to the provisions of the contracts and to the stipulations of the present Treaty:
 
(a) Contracts for the sale of real property, even if all formalities may not have been concluded, provided that delivery did in fact take place before the date on which the parties became enemies as defined in Article 82.
 
(b) Leases and agreements for leases of land and houses entered into between individuals.
 
(c) Contracts between individuals regarding the exploitation of mines, forests or agricultural estates.
 
(d) Contracts of mortgage, pledge or lien.
 
(e) Contracts constituting companies, excepting “societes en ‘nom collectif’ ” which do not constitute, under the law to which they are subject, an entity separate from that of the persons of which they are composed (partnerships).
 
(f) Contracts, whatever may be their purpose, concluded between individuals or companies and the State, provinces, municipalities or other similar juridical persons charged with administrative functions.
 
(g) Contracts relating to family status.
 
(h) Contracts relating to gifts or bounties of any kind whatever.
 
This Article cannot be invoked in order to give to contracts a validity different from that which they had in themselves when they were concluded.
 
It does not apply to concessionary contracts.
 
 
ARTICLE 74.
 
Insurance contracts are governed by the provisions of the Annex to this Section.
 
 
ARTICLE 75.
 
Contracts other than those specified in Articles 73 and 74 and other than concessionary contracts, which were entered into between persons who subsequently became enemies, shall be considered as having been annulled as from the date on which the parties became enemies.
 
Nevertheless, either of the parties to the contract shall have power, within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to require the execution of the contract, on condition of paying, where the circumstances demand it, to the other party compensation calculated according to the difference between the conditions prevailing at the time when the contract was concluded and those prevailing at the time when its maintenance is required. In default of agreement between the parties, this compensation shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal.
 
 
ARTICLE 76.
 
The validity of all compromises entered into before the coming into force of the present Treatybetween nationals of the Contracting Powers, parties to contracts specified in Articles 73 to 75, particularly those providing for the cancellation, the maintenance, the methods of execution, or the modification of such contracts, including agreements relating to the currency of payment or the rate of exchange, is confirmed.
 
 
ARTICLE 77.
 
Contracts between Allied and Turkish nationals concluded after the 30th October, I918, remain in force and will be governed by the ordinary law.
 
Contracts duly concluded with the Constantinople Government between the 30th October, I9I8, and the I6th March, I920, also remain in force and will be governed by the ordinary law.
 
All contracts and arrangements duly concluded after the 16th March, I920, with the Constantinople Government concerning territories which remained under the effective control of the said Government, shall be submitted to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey for approval, if the parties concerned make application within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty. Payments made under such contracts shall be duly credited to the party who has made them.
 
If approval is not granted, the party concerned shall, if the circumstances demand it, be entitled to compensation corresponding to the direct loss which has been actually suffered; such compensation, in default of an amicable agreement, shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal.
 
The provisions of this Article are not applicable either to concessionary contracts or to transfers of concessions.
 
 
ARTICLE 78.
 
All disputes which already exist, or may arise within the period of six months mentioned below, relating to contracts, other than concessionary contracts, between parties who subsequently became enemies, shall be determined by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, with the exception of disputes which, in accordance with the laws of neutral Powers are within the competence of the national courts of those Powers. In the latter case, such disputes shall be determined by the said national courts, to the exclusion of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. Applications relating to disputes which, under this Article, are within the competence of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, must be presented to the said Tribunal within a period of six months from the date of its establishment.
 
After the expiration of this period, disputes which have not been submitted to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be determined by the competent courts in accordance with the ordinary law.
 
The provisions of this Article do not apply to cases in which all the parties to the contract resided in the same country during the war and there freely disposed of their persons and their property, nor to disputes in respect of which judgment was given by a competent court before the date on which the parties became enemies.
 
 
ARTICLE 79.
 
All periods whatever of prescription or limitation of right of action, whether they began to run before or after the outbreak of war, shall be treated, in the territory of the High Contracting Parties so far as regards relations between enemies, as having been suspended from the 29th October, I9I4, until the expiration of three months after the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
This provision applies, in particular, to periods of time allowed for the presentation of interest or dividend coupons, or for the presentation for payment of securities drawn for redemption or repayable on any other ground.
 
As regards Roumania, the above-mentioned periods shall be considered as having been suspended as from the 27th August 19I6.
 
 
ARTICLE 80.
 
As between enemies no negotiable instrument made before the war shall be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of failure within the required time to present the instrument for acceptance or payrnent, or to give notice of non-acceptance or non-payment to drawers or endorsers, or to protest the instrument, nor by reason of failure to complete any formality during the war.
 
When the period within which a negotiable instrument should have been presented for acceptance or payment, or within which notice of non-acceptance or non-payment should have been given to the drawers or endorsers, or within which the instrument should have been protested, has expired during the war, and when the party who should have presented or protested the instrument or given notice of non-acceptance or non-payment, has failed to do so during the war, a period of three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be allowed within which the presentation, notice of non-acceptance or non-payment, or protest may be made.
 
 
ARTICLE 8I.
 
Sales effected during the war in order to realise pledges or mortgages created before the war as security for debts which have become payable, shall be deemed valid, although it may not have been possible to perform all the formalities required for notifying the debtor, subject to the express right of the said debtor to summon the creditor before the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal to render accounts, failing which the creditor will be liable to be cast in damages.
 
It shall be the duty of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal to settle the accounts between the parties, to investigate the conditions under which the property pledged or mortgaged was sold, and to order the creditor to make good any loss suffered by the debtor as a result of the sale if the creditor acted in bad faith or if he did not take all steps in his power to avoid having recourse to a sale or to cause the sale to be conducted in such conditions as to ensure the realisation of a fair price.
 
The present provision is applicable only between enemies and does not extend to transactions referred to above which may have been carried out after the Ist May, 1923.
 
 
ARTICLE 82.
 
For the purposes of the present Section, the parties to a contract shall be regarded as enemies from the date on which trading between them became impossible in fact or was prohibited or became unlawful under laws, orders or regulations to which one of the parties was subject.
 
By way of exception to Articles 73-75, 79 and 80, contracts shall be governed by the ordinary law if they were concluded within the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties between enemies (including companies) or their agents, if this territory was an enemy country for one of the contracting parties who remained there during the war and was there able to dispose freely of his person and property.
 
 
ARTICLE 83.
 
The provisions of this Section do not apply between Japan and Turkey; matters dealt with in this Section shall, in both of these countries, be determined in accordance with the local law.
 
 
ANNEX.
I. LIFE ASSURANCE.
Paragraph I.
Life assurance contracts entered into between an insurer and a person who subsequently became an enemy shall not be deemed to have been dissolved by the outbreak of war or by the fact of the person becoming an enemy.
 
Every sum which, during the war, became due upon a contract deemed not to have been dissolved in accordance with the preceding paragraph, shall be recoverable after the war. This sum shall be increased by interest at 5 per cent. per annum from the date of its becoming due up to the day of payment.
 
If the contract has lapsed during the war, owing to non-payment of premiums or has become void from breach of the conditions of the contract, the assured, or his representatives, or the persons entitled, shall have the right at any moment within twelve months from the coming into force of the present Treaty to claim from the insurer the surrender value of the policy at the date of its lapse or annulation, together with interest at 5 per cent. per annum.
 
Turkish nationals whose life insurance contracts entered into before the 29th October, 1914, have been cancelled or reduced before the Treaty for non-payment of premiums in accordance with the provisions of the said contracts, shall have the right, within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, if they are still alive, to restore their policies for the whole of the amount assured. For this purpose they must, after having undergone a medical examination by the doctor of the company, the result of which the company considers satisfactory, pay the premiums in arrear with compound interest at 5 per cent.
 
Paragraph 2.
 
It is understood that life assurance contracts in money other than the Turkish pound, entered into before the 29th October, 19I4, between companies possessing the nationality of an Allied Power and Turkish nationals, in respect of which the premiums have been paid before and after the 18th November, 1915, or even only before that date, shall be regulated, first, by determining the rights of the assured in accordance with the general conditions of the policy for the period before the 18th November, 1915, in the currency stipulated in the contract at the current rate in its country of origin (for example, every amount stipulated in francs, in gold francs, or in “francs effectifs” will be paid in French francs), secondly, for the period after the 18th November, 19I5, in Turkish pounds paper-the Turkish pound being taken at the pre-war par value.
 
If Turkish nationals whose contracts were entered into in currency other than Turkish currency show that they have continued to pay their premiums since the 18th November, 1915, in the currency stipulated in the contracts, the said contracts shall be settled in the same currency at the current rate in its country of origin, even for the periocl after the 18th November, 19I5.
 
Turkish nationals whose contracts, entered into before the 29th October, 1914, in currency other than Turkish currency with companies possessing the nationality of an Allied Power are, owing to payment of premiums, still in force, shall have the right within three months after the coming into force of the present Treaty to restore their policies for the full amount, in the currency stipulated in their contract, at the current rate in its country of origin. For this purpose they must pay in this currency the premiums which have become due since the 18th November, 1915. On the other hand, the premiums actually paid by them in Turkish pounds paper since that date will be repaid to them in the same currency.
 
Paragraph 3.
 
As regards insurances in Turkish pounds, settlement shall be made in Turkish pounds paper.
 
Paragraph 4.
 
The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 do not apply to policy holders who, by an express agreement, have already settled with the insurance companies the fixation of the value of their policies and the method of payment of their premiums, nor to those whose policies shall have been finally settled at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
Paragraph 5.
 
For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, insurance contracts shall be considered as contracts of life insurance when they depend on the probabilities of human life, combined with the rate of interest, for the calculation of the reciprocal engagement between the two parties.
 
II. MARINE INSURANCE.
 
Paragraph 6.
 
Subject to the provisions therein contained, contracts of marine insurance will not be deemed to have been dissolved where the risk had attached before the parties became enemies, but the policy shall not be deemed to cover losses due to belligerent action by the Power of which the insurer was a national or by the allies of that Power.
 
III. FIRE AND OTHER INSURANCES.
 
Paragraph 7.
 
Subject to the reserve contained in the preceding paragraph, fire insurance contracts and all other forms of insurance contracts are not deemed to be dissolved.
 
 
SECTION III.
DEBTS.
ARTICLE 84.
The High Contracting Parties are in agreement in recognising that debts which were payable before the war or which became payable during the war under contracts entered into before the war, and which remained unpaid owing to the war, must be settled and paid, in accordance with the provisions of the contracts, in the currency agreed upon, at the rate current in its country of origin.
 
Without prejudice to the provisions of the Annex to Section II of this part, it is agreed that where payments to be made under a pre-war contract are represented by sums collected during the war in whole or in part in a currency other than that mentioned in the said contract, such payments can be made by handing over the sums actually collected, in the currency in which they were collected. This provision shall not affect settlements inconsistent with the foregoing provisions arrived at by voluntary agreement between the parties before the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 85.
 
The Ottoman Public Debt is by general agreement left outside the scope of.this Section and of the other Sections of this Part (Economic Clauses).
 
 
SECTION IV.
INDUSTRIAL, LITERARY AND ARTISTIC PROPERTY.
ARTICLE 86.
Subject to the stipulations of the present Treaty, rights of industrial, literary and artistic property as they existed on the 1st August, I9I4, in accordance with the law of each of the contracting countries, shall be re-established or restored as from the coming into force of the present Treaty in the territories of the High Contracting Parties in favour of the persons entitled to the benefit of them at the moment when the state of war commenced, or of their legal representatives. Equally, rights which, but for the war, could have been acquired during the war, by means of an application legally made for the protection of industrial property or of the publication of a literary or artistic work, shall be recognised and established in favour of those persons who would have been entitled thereto, from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
Without prejudice to the rights which are required to be restored in accordance with the above provision, all acts (including the grant of licences) done by virtue of the special measures taken during the war by a legislative, executive or administrative authority of an Allied Power in regard to the rights of Turkish nationals in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property, shall remain in force and continue to have their full effect. This provision applies mutatis mutandis to corresponding measures taken by Turkish authorities in regard to the rights of the nationals of any Allied Power.
 
 
ARTICLE 87.
 
A minimum of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be granted, without surtax or penalty of any kind, to Turkish nationals in the territory of each of the other Contracting Powers, and to the nationals of these Powers in Turkey, within which they may accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, pay any fees, and generally satisfy any obligation prescribed by the laws and regulations of the respective States for preserving or obtaining or opposing the grant of rights to industriai property which had already been acquired on the 1st August, I9I4, or which, but for the war, might have been acquired since that date by means of an application made before or during the war.
 
Rights to industrial property which have lapsed by reason of any failure to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, or pay any fees shall be revived, but subject, in the case of patents and designs, to the adoption of such measures as each Power may deem reasonably necessary for the protection of the rights of third parties who have exploited or made use of patents or designs since they had lapsed.
 
The period from the Ist August, I9I4, until the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be excluded in calculating the time within which a patent has to be exploited or a trade-mark or design used, and it is further agreed that no patent, trade-mark or design in force on the Ist August, I9I4, shall be subject to revocation or cancellation by reason only of the failure to exploit such patent or use such trade-mark or design, for two years after the coming into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 88.
 
No action shall be brought and no claim made on the one hand by Turkish nationals or persons residing or carrying on business in Turkey, and on the other hand by nationals of the Allied Powers or persons residing or carrying on their business in the territory of these Powers, nor by third parties having derived title during the war from such persons, by reason of any occurrence which has taken place within the territory of the other party, between the date of the beginning of a state of war and that of the coming into force of the present Treaty, which might tve held to constitute an infringement of rights of industrial property or rights of literary or artistic property either existing at any time during the war, or revived under the provisions of Article 86.
 
Among the occurrences referred to above are included the use by the Governments of the High Contracting Parties, or by any person acting on their behalf, or with their consent, of rights of industrial, literary or artistic property, as well as the sale, the offering for sale or the use of products, apparatus, or any articles whatsoever to which these rights apply.
 
 
ARTICLE 89.
 
Licences for the use of industrial property, or for the reproduction of literary or artistic works, granted before the war by or to nationals of the Allied Powers or persons residing in their territories or carrying on business therein, on the one hand, to or by Turkish nationals on the other hand, shall be considered as cancelled as from the date of the beginning of a state of war between Turkey and the Allied Power concerned. But in any case, the former beneficiary of a licence of this kind shall have the right within a period of six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty to require from the proprietor of the rights the grant of a new licence, the conditions of which, in default of agreement between the parties, shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal referred to in Section V of this Part. The Tribunal shall have the power, where the circumstances demand it, to fix at the same time the amount which it considers fair payment for the use of the property during the war.
 
 
ARTICLE 90
 
The inhabitants of territories detached from Turkey under the present Treaty shall, notwithstanding this transfer and the change of nationality consequent thereon, continue in complete enjoyment in Turkey of all the rights in industrial, literary and artistic property to which they were entitled under Ottoman law at the time of transfer.
 
Rights of industrial, literary and artistic property which are in existence in territories detached from Turkey under the present Treaty at the time of separation, or which are re-established or restored by the provisions of Article 86, shall be recognised by the State to which the said territory is transferred, and shall remain in existence in that territory for the same period of time as that which they would have enjoyed under Ottoman law.
 
 
ARTICLE 91
 
All grants of patents and registrations of trade-marks, as well as all registrations of transfers or assignments of patents or trade marks which have been duly made since the 30th October, 1918, by the Imperial Ottoman Government at Constantinople or elsewhere, shall be submitted to the Turkish Government and registered, if the parties concerned make an application within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty. Such registration shall have effect as from the date of the original registration.
 
 
SECTION V.
MIXED ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL.
ARTICLE 92.
Within three months from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, a Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be established between each of the Allied Powers, on the one hand, and Turkey, on the other hand.
 
Each of these Tribunals shall be composed of three members, two being appointed respectively by each of the Governments concerned, who shall be entitled to designate several persons from whom, according to the case in question, they will choose one to sit as a member of the Tribunal. The president shall be chosen by agreement between the two Governments concerned.
 
In case of failure to reach agreement within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the president shall be appointed, upon the request of one of the Governments concerned, from among nationals of Powers which remained neutral during the war, by the President of the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague.
 
If within the said period of two months one of the Governments concerned does not appoint a member to represent it on the Tribunal, the Council of the League of Nations will have power to proceed to the appointment of such member upon the request of the other Government concerned.
 
If a member of the Tribunal should die or resign or for any reason become unable to perform his duties, he shall be replaced by the method laid down for his appointment, the above period of two months running from the date of death, resignation or inability as duly verified.
 
 
ARTICLE 93.
 
The seat of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals shall be at Constantinople. If the number and character of the cases justify it, the Governments concerned shall be entitled to create in each Tribunal onc or more additional Sections, the seat of which shall be in whatever place may be convenient. Each of these Sections shall be composed of a vice-president and two members appointed as laid down in the second, third, fourth and fifth paragraphs of Article 92.
 
Each Government shall appoint one or more agents to represent it before the Tribunal.
 
If, after three years from the establishment of a Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, or of one of its Sections, such Tribunal or Section has not finished its work, and if the Power on whose territory such Tribunal or Section has its seat so requests, the seat shall be removed from such territory.
 
ARTICLE 94.
 
The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals established pursuant to Articles 92 and 93 shall decide all questions within their competence under the present Treaty.
 
Decisions shall be taken by a majority.
 
The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals as final and conclusive, and to render them binding upon their nationals, and to ensure their enforcement in their respective territories as soon as the decisions of the Tribunals are notified to them, without it being necessary to have them declared executory.
 
The High Contracting Parties further undertake that their Tribunals and authorities shall directly assist the fixed Arbitral Tribunals in every way that is in their power, particularly as re- gards the transmission of notices and the collection of evidence.
 
 
ARTICLE 95.
 
The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals shall be guided by justice, equity and good faith.
 
Each Tribunal will determine the language to be used before it, and shall order such translations to be made as are necessary to ensure that the proceedings are completely understood; it will lay down rules and time limits for the procedure to be observed. These rules must be based on the following principles:
 
(I) The procedure shall include the presentation of a memorial and a counter-memorial respectively, with the option of presenting a reply and a rejoinder. If either of the parties asks for leave to present an oral argument he will be permitted to do so; in such case the other party will have the same right.
 
(2) The Tribunal shall have full power to order enquiries, the production of documents, and expert examinations, to make a view, to demand any information, to hear any witnesses and to ask the parties or their representatives for any verbal or written explanations.
 
(3) Subject to any contrary provision in the present Treaty, no claim shall be admitted after the expiry of a period of six months from the establishment of the Tribunal, except upon express authority contained in a decision of the said Tribunal and justified as an exceptional measure by considerations relating to distance or force majeure.
 
(4) It shall be the duty of the Tribunal to hold as many sittings each week as may be needed for the prompt despatch of its business, except during vacations, which shall not exceed a total of eight weeks a year.
 
(5) Judgment must always be given within at most two months from the end of the hearing, after which the Tribunal will at once proceed to consider its judgment.
 
(6) Oral arguments, if any, shall be heard in public, and in all cases judgment shall be delivered in public.
 
(7) Each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be entitled to hold sittings elsewhere than in the place where its seat is established, if it considers it advantageous for the despatch of business.
 
 
ARTICLE 96.
 
The Governments concerned shall appoint by agreement a Secretary-General for each Tribunal, and shall each attach to him one or more Secretaries. The Secretary-General and the Secretaries shall be under the orders of the Tribunal, which with the consent of the Governments concerned shall be entitled to engage any persons whose assistance it may need.
 
The Secretariat of each Tribunal shall have its offices at Constantinople. The Governments concerned shall have power to establish additional offices in such other places as may be convenient.
 
Each Tribunal shall keep in its Secretariat the records, papers and documents relating to the cases submitted to it, and upon the completion of its duties it shall deposit them in the archives of the Government of the country where its seat is established. These archives shall always be accessible to the Governments concerned.
 
 
ARTICLE 97.
 
Each Government shall pay the emoluments of the member of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal whom it appoints, as well as those of any agent or secretary appointed by it.
 
The emoluments of the President and those of the Secretary-General shall be fixed by agreement between the Governments concerned, and these emoluments and the general expenses of the Tribunal shall be paid in equal shares by the two Governments.
 
 
ARTICLE 98.
 
The present section shall not apply to cases between Japan and Turkey, which, according to the terms of the present Treaty, would fall within the competence of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. Such cases shall be settled by agreement between the two Govern- ments.
 
 
SECTION VI.
TREATIES.
ARTICLE 99.
From the coming into force of the present Treaty and subject to the provisions thereof, the multilateral treaties, conventions and agreements of an economic or technical character enumerated below shall enter again into force between Turkey and those of the other Contracting Powers party thereto:
 
(I) Conventions of March 14, 1884, of December 1, 1886, and of March 23, 1887, and Final Protocol of July 7, 1887, regarding the protection of submarine cables;
 
(2) Convention of July 5, 1890, regarding the publication of customs tariffs and the organisation of an International Union for the publication of customs tariffs;
 
(3) Arrangement of December 9, 1907, regarding the creation of the International Office of Public Hygiene at Paris;
 
(4) Convention of June 7, 1905, regarding the creation of an International Agricultural Institute at Rome;
 
(5) Convention of July 16, 1863, for the redemption of the toll dues on the Scheldt;
 
(6) Convention of October 29, 1888, regarding the establishment of a definite arrangement guaranteeing the free use of the Suez Canal, subject to the special stipulations provided for by Article 19 of the present Treaty;
 
(7) Conventions and Agreements of the Universal Postal Union, including the Conventions and Agreements signed at Madrid on November 30, 1920;
 
(8) International Telegraphic Conventions signed at St. Petersburgh on July 10-22, 1875; Regulations and Tariffs drawn up by the International Telegraph Conference, Lisbon, June 11, 1908.
 
 
ARTICLE 100.
 
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the Conventions or Agreements enumerated below, or to ratify them:
 
(I) Convention of October 11, 1909, regarding the inter- national circulation of motor cars;
 
(2) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the sealing of railway trucks subject to customs inspection and Protocol of May 18, 1907;
 
(3) Convention of September 23, 1910, respecting the unification of certain regulations regarding collisions and salvage at sea;
 
(4) Convention of December 21, 1904, regarding exemption of hospital ships from dues and charges in ports;
 
(5) Conventions of May 18, 1904, of May 4, 1910, and of September 30, 1921, regarding the suppression of the White Slave Traffic;
 
(6) Conventions of May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of obscene publications;
 
(7) Sanitary Convention of January 17, 1912, Articles 54, 88 and 90 being reserved;
 
(8) Conventions of November 3, 1881, and April 15, 1889, regarding precautionary measures against phylloxera;
 
(9) Opium Convention, signed at The Hague, January 23, 1912, and additional Protocol of 1914;
 
(10) International Radio-Telegraphic Convention of July 5, 1912;
 
(11) Convention regarding liquor traffic in Africa, signed at St. Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919;
 
(12) Convention revising the General Act of Berlin of February 26, 1885, and the General Act and Declaration of Brussels of July 2, I890, signed at St. Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919;
 
(13) Convention of October 13, 1919, regulating aerial navigation, provided that Turkey obtains, under the Protocol of May 1, 1920, such derogations as her geographical situation may render necessary;
 
(14) Convention of September 26, 1906, signed at Berne, prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.
 
Turkey further undertakes to take part in the elaboration of new international conventions relating to telegraphy and radio-telegraphy.
 
 
PART IV.
COMMUNICATIONS AND SANITARY QUESTIONS.
SECTION 1.
COMMUNICATIONS.
ARTICLE 101.
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the Convention and to the Statute respecting the Freedom of Transit adopted by the Conference of Barcelona on the 14th April, 192I, as well as to the Convention and the Statute respecting the regime for waterways of international interest adopted by the said Conference on the 19th April, 1921, and to the supplementary Protocol.
 
Turkey accordingly undertakes to bring into force the provisions of these Conventions, Statutes and Protocol as from the entry into force of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 102.
 
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the Declaration of Barcelona. dated the 20th April, 1921, “recognising the rights of the flag of States not possessing a sea-board.”
 
 
ARTICLE 103.
 
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the recommendations of the Conference of Barcelona, dated the 20th April, 1921, respecting ports placed under an international regime. Turkey will subsequently make known those ports which will be placed under that regime.
 
 
ARTICLE 104.
 
Turkey undertakes to adhere to the recommendations of the Conference of Barcelona, dated the 20th April, 1921, respecting international railways. These recommendations will be brought into force by the Turkish Government on the coming into force of the present Treaty and subject to reciprocity.
 
 
ARTICLE 105.
 
On the coming into force of the present Treaty, Turkey agrees to subscribe to the Conventions and arrangements signed at Berne on October 14, 1890, September 20, 1893, July I6, 1895, June 16, 1898, and September 19, 1906, regarding the transportation of goods by rail.
 
 
ARTICLE 106.
 
When, as a result of the fixing of new frontiers, a railway connection between two parts of the same country crosses another country, or a branch line from one country has its terminus in another, the conditions of working, in so far as concerns the traffic between the two countries, shall, subject to any special arrangements, be laid down in an agreement to be concluded between the railway administrations concerned. If these administrations cannot come to an agreement as to the terms of such agreement, those conditions shall be decided by arbitration.
 
The establishment of all new frontier stations between Turkey and the neighbouring States, as well as the working of the lines between those stations, shall be settled by agreements similarly concluded .
 
 
ARTICLE 107
 
Travellers and goods coming from or destined for Turkey or Greece, and making use in transit of the three sections of the Oriental Railways included between the Grseco-Bulgarian frontier and the Grceco-Turkish frontier near Kuleli-Burgas, shall not be subject, on account of such transit, to any duty or toll nor to any formality of examination in connection with passports or customs.
 
A Commissioner, who shall be selected by the Council of the League of Nations, shall ensure that the stipulations of this Article are carried out.
 
The Greek and Turkish Governments shall each have the right to appoint a representative to be attached to this Commissioner; this representative shall have the duty of drawing the attention of the Commissioner to any question relating to the execution of the above-mentioned stipulations, and shall enjoy all the necessary facilities to enable him to accomplish his task. These representatives shall reach an agreement with the Commissioner as to the number and nature of the subordinate staff which they will require.
 
It shall be the duty of the said Commissioner to submit, for the decision of the Council of the League of Nations, any question relating to the execution of the said stipulations which he may not have been able to settle. The Greek and Turkish Governments undertake to carry out any decision given by the majority vote of the said Council.
 
The salary of the said Commissioner, as well as the expenses of his work, shall be borne in equal parts by the Greek and Turkish Governments.
 
In the event of Turkey constructing later a railway line joining Adrianople to the line between Kuleli-Burgas and Constantinople, the stipulations of this Article shall lapse in so far as concerns transit between the points on the Graoco-Turkish frontier lying near Kuleli-Burgas and Bosna-Keuy respectively.
 
Each of the two interested Powers shall have the right, after five years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to apply to the Council of the League of Nations with a view to deciding whether it is necessary that the control mentioned in paragraphs 2 to 5 of the present Article should be maintained. Nevertheless, it remains understood that the stipulations of paragraph I shall remain in force for transit over the two sections of the Oriental Railways between the Graeco-Bulgarian frontier and Bosna-Keuy.
 
 
ARTICLE 108.
 
Subject to any special provisions concerning the transfer of ports and railways, whether owned by the Turkish Government or private companies, situated in the territories detached from Turkey under the present Treaty, and similarly subject to any agreements which have been, or may be, concluded between the Contracting Powers relating to the concessionnaries and the pensioning of the personnel, the transfer of railways will take place under the following conditions:
 
(I) The works and installations of all the railroads shall be left complete and in as good condition as possible;
 
(2) When a railway system possessing its own rolling-stock is situated in its entirety in transferred territory, such stock shall be left complete with the railway, in accordance with the last inventory before the 30th October, 1918;
 
(3) As regards lines, the administration of which will in virtue of the present Treaty be divided, the distribution of the rolling-stock shall be made by friendly agreement between the administrations taking over the several sections thereof. This agreement shall have regard to the amount of the material registered on those lines in the last inventory before the 30th October, 1918, the length of the track (sidings included) and the nature and amount of the traffic. Failing agreement, the points in dispute shall be settled by arbitration. The arbitral decision shall also, if necessary, specify the locomotives, carriages and wagons to be left on each section, the conditions of their acceptance and such provisional arrangements as may be judged necessary to ensure for a limited period the current maintenance in existing workshops of the transferred stock;
 
(4) Stocks of stores, fittings and plant shall be left under the same conditions as the rolling-stock.
 
 
ARTICLE 109.
 
In default of any provisions to the contrary, when as the result of the fixing of a new frontier the hydraulic system (canalisation, inundation, irrigation, drainage or similar matters) in a State is dependent on works executed within the territory of another State, or when use is made on the territory of a State, in virtue of pre-war usage, of water or hydraulic power, the source of which is on the territory of another State, an agreement shall be made between the States concerned to safeguard the interests and rights acquired by each of them.
 
Failing an agreement, the matter shall be regulated by arbitration.
 
 
ARTICLE 110.
 
Roumania and Turkey will come to an agreement as to an equitable arrangement for the working conditions of the Constanza-Constantinople cable. Failing agreement, the matter shall be settled by arbitration.
 
 
ARTICLE 111.
 
Turkey renounces on her own behalf and on behalf of her nationals all rights, titles or privileges of whatsoever nature over the whole or part of such cables as no longer land on her territory.
 
If the cables or portions thereof transferred under the preceding paragraph are privately owned, the Governments to which this property is transferred will have to indemnify the owners. Failing agreement respecting the amount of indemnity, this amount will be fixed by arbitration.
 
 
ARTICLE 112.
 
Turkey will retain the rights of property which she may already possess over those cables of which at least one end remains in Turkish territory.
 
The exercise of the landing rights of the said cables in non-Turkish territory and their working conditions shall be settled in a friendly manner by the States concerned. Failing agreement, the dispute will be settled by arbitration.
 
 
ARTICLE 113.
 
Each of the High Contracting Parties hereby accepts, in so far as it is concerned, the abolition of foreign post offfices in Turkey.
 
 
SECTION II.
SANITARY QUESTIONS.
ARTICLE 114.
The Superior Council of Health of Constantinople is abolished. The Turkish Administration is entrusted with the sanitary organisation of the coasts and frontiers of Turkey.
 
 
ARTICLE 115.
 
A single sanitary tariff, the dues and conditions of which shall be fair, shall be applied to all ships without distinction between the Turkish flag and foreign flags, and to nationals of foreign Powers under the same conditions as to nationals of Turkey.
 
 
ARTICLE 116.
 
Turkey undertakes to respect entirely the right of the sanitary employees whose services have been terminated to compensation to be appropriated out of the funds of the former Superior Council of Health of Constantinople, and all other rights acquired by employees or former employees of the Council, or their representatives. All questions relating to such rights, to the employment of the reserve funds of the former Superior Council of Health of Constantinople, or to the final liquidation of the former sanitary administration, as well as all other similar or cognate questions, shall be regulated by a Commission ad hoc which shall be composed of a representative of each of the Powers represented on the Superior Council of Health of Constantinople except Germany, Austria and Hungary. In the event of disagreement between the members of the said Commission on a question relating to the above-mentioned liquidation, or the employment of the funds remaining after the liquidation, every Power represented on the Commission shall have the right to bring the matter to the notice of the Council of the League of Nations, whose decision shall be final.
 
 
ARTICLE 117.
 
Turkey and those Powers which are interested in the supervision of the pilgrimages to Jerusalem and to the Hedjaz and the Hedjaz railway shall take such measures as are appropriate in accordance with the provisions of international sanitary conventions. With a view to ensuring complete uniformity in the execution of these measures, these Powers and Turkey shall constitute a Sanitary Coordination Commission for pilgrimages, on which the sanitary service of Turkey and the Maritime Sanitary and Quarantine Council of Egypt shall be represented.
 
This Commission must obtain the previous consent of the State on whose territory it holds its meeting.
 
 
ARTICLE 118.
 
Reports on the work of the Pilgrimage Coordination Commission shall be addressed to the Health Committee of the League of Nations and to the International Office of Public Health, and also to the Government of each country which is interested in pilgrimages and makes a request therefor. The Commission will give its opinion on every question put to it by the League of Nations, by the International Office of Public Health, or by the interested Governments.
 
 
PART V.
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.
SECTION I.
PRISONERS 0F WAR.
ARTICLE 119.
The High Contracting Parties agree to repatriate at once the prisoners of war and interned civilians who are still in their hands.
 
The exchange of prisoners of war and interned civilians detained by Greece and Turkey respectively forms the subject of a separate agreement between those Powers signed at Lausanne on the 30th January,1923.
 
 
ARTICLE 120.
 
Prisoners of war and interned civilians awaiting disposal or undergoing sentence for offences against discipline shall be repatriated irrespective of the completion of their sentence or of the proceedings pending against them.
 
Prisoners of war and interned civilians who are awaiting trial or undergoing sentence for offences other than those against discipline may be detained.
 
 
ARTICLE 121.
 
The High Contracting Parties agree to give every facility in their respective territories for the search for the missing and the identification of prisoners of war and interned civilians who have expressed their desire not to be repatriated.
 
 
ARTICLE 122.
 
The High Contracting Parties undertake to restore on the coming into force of the present Treaty all articles, money, securities, documents and personal effects of every description which have belonged to prisoners of war or interned civilians and which have been retained.
 
 
ARTICLE 123.
 
The High Contracting Parties waive reciprocally all repayments of sums due for the maintenance of prisoners of war captured by their armies.
 
 
SECTION II.
GRAVES.
ARTICLE 124.
Without prejudice to the special provisions of Article 126 of the present Treaty, the High Contracting Parties will cause to be respected and maintained within the territories under their authority the cemeteries, graves, ossuaries and memorials of soldiers and sailors who fell in action or died from wounds accident or disease since the 29th October, 1914, as well as of prisoners of war and interned civilians who died in captivity after that date.
 
The High Contracting Parties will agree to accord in their respective territories all necessary facilities to such Commissions as each Contracting Power may appoint for the purpose of the identification, registration and maintenance of the said cemeteries, ossuaries and graves, and the erection of memorials on their sites. Such Commissions shall not have any military character.
 
The High Contracting Parties reciprocally undertake, subject to the provisions of their national laws and the requirements of public health, to furnish each other every facility for giving effect to requests that the bodies of such soldiers and sailors may be transferred to their own country.
 
 
ARTICLE 125.
 
The High Contracting Parties further undertake to furnish each other:
 
(I) A complete list of prisoners of war and interned civilians who have died in captivity, together with all information tending towards their identification.
 
(2) All information as to the number and position of the graves of all those who have been buried without identification.
 
 
ARTICLE 126.
 
The maintenace of the graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials of Turkish soldiers, sailors and prisoners of war who may have died on Roumanian territory since the 27th August 1916, as well as all other obligations under Articles 124 and 125 regarding interned civilians, shall form the object of a special arrangement between the Roumanian and the Turkish Governments.
 
 
ARTICLE 127.
 
In order to complete the general provisions included in Articles 124 and 125, the Governments of the British Empire, France and Italy on the one hand and the Turkish and Greek Governments on the other agree to the special provisions contained in Articles 128 to 136.
 
 
ARTICLE 128.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes to grant to the Governments of the British Empire, France and Italy respectively and in perpetuity the land within the Turkish territory in which are situated the graves, cemeteries, ossuaries or memorials of their soldiers and sailors who fell in action or died of wounds, accident or disease, as well as those of prisoners of war and interned civil- ians who died in captivity.
 
The Turkish Government will also grant to those Governments the land which the Commissions provided for in Article 130 shall consider necessary for the establishment of cemeteries for the regrouping of graves, for ossuaries or memorials.
 
The Turkish Government undertakes further to give free access to these graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials, and if need be to authorise the construction of the necessary roads and pathways.
 
The Greek Government undertakes to fulfil the same obligations in so far as concerns its territory.
 
The above provisions shall not affect Turkish or Greek sovereignty over the land thus granted.
 
 
ARTICLE 129.
 
The land to be granted by the Turkish Government will include in particular, as regards the British Empire, the area in the region known as Anzac (Ari Burnu), which is shown on Map No. 3. [See Introduction.] The occupation of the above-mentioned area shall be subject to the following conditions:
 
(1) This area shall not be applied to any purpose other than that laid down in the present Treaty; consequently it shall not be utilised for any military or commercial object nor for any other object foreign to the purpose mentioned above;
 
(2) The Turkish Government shall, at all times, have the right to cause this area, including the cemeteries, to be inspected;
 
(3) The number of civil custodians appointed to look after the cemeteries shall not exceed one custodian to each cemetery. There shall not be any special custodians for the parts of the area Iying outside the cemeteries;
 
(4) No dwelling houses may be erected in the area, either inslde or outside the cemeteries, except such as are strictly necessary for the custodians;
 
(5) On the sea shore of the area no quay, jetty or wharfs may be built to facilitate the landing or embarkation of persons or goods;
 
(6) Such formalities as may be required may only be fulfilled on the coast inside the Straits and access to the area by the coast on the AEgean Sea shall only be permitted after these formalities have been fulfilled. The Turkish Government agrees that these formalities, which shall be as simple as possible, shall not be, without prejudice to the other stipulations of this Article, more onerous than those imposed on other foreigners entering Turkey, and that they should be fulfilled under conditions tending to avoid all unnecessary delay;
 
(7) Persons who desire to visit the area must not be armed, and the Turkish Government have the right to see to the enforcement of this strict prohibition;
 
(8) The Turkish Government must be informed at least a week in advance of the arrival of any party of visitors exceeding 150 persons.
 
 
ARTICLE 130.
 
Each of the British, French and Italian Governments shall appoint a commission, on which the Turkish and Greek Governments will appoint a representative, to which will be entrusted the duty of regulating on the spot questions affecting the graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials. The duties of these commissions shall extend particularly to:
 
(1) the offficial recognition of the zones where burials have or may have already taken place and the registration of cemeteries, ossuaries, or memorials already existing;
 
(2) fixing the conditions in which, if necessary, graves may in future be concentrated, and deciding, in conjunction with the Turkish representative in Turkish territory and the Greek representative in Greek territory, the sites of the cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials still to be established, and defining the boundaries of these sites in such a way as shall restrict the land to be occupied within the limits indispensable for the purpose;
 
(3) communicating to the Turkish and Greek Governments in the name of the respective Governments a final plan of their graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials, whether already established or to be established.
 
 
ARTICLE 131 .
 
The Government in whose favour the grant is made undertakes not to employ the land nor to allow it to be employed for any purpose other than that to which it is dedicated. If this land is situated on the coast, the shore may not be employed by the concessionary Government for any military, marine or commercial purpose of whatever nature. The sites of graves and cemeteries which may no longer be used for that purpose and which are not used for the erection of memorials shall be returned to the Turkish or Greek Government.
 
 
ARTICLE 132.
 
Any necessary legislative or administrative measures for the grant to the British, French and Italian Governments respectively of full, exclusive and perpetual use of the land referred to in Articles 128 to 130 shall be taken by the Turkish Government and Greek Government respectively within six months of the date of the notification to be made in accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 130. If any compulsory acquisition of the land is necessary, it will be effected by and at the cost of the Turkish Government or the Greek Government, as the case may be.
 
 
ARTICLE 133.
 
The British, French and Italian Governments may respectively entrust to such organisations as each of them may deem fit the establishment, arrangement and maintenance of the graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials of their nationals. These organisations shall have no military character. They alone shall have the right to undertake the exhumation or removal of bodies necessary for the concentration of graves and establishment of cemeteries and ossuaries, as well as the exhumation and removal of such bodies as the Governments to whom the grant of land is made shall deem it necessary to transfer to their own country.
 
 
ARTICLE 134.
 
The British, French and Italian Governments shall have the right to entrust the maintenance of their graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials in Turkey to custodians appointed from among their own nationals. These custodians shall be recognised by the Turkish authorities and shall receive from them every assistance necessary for the safeguard and protection of these graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials. The custodians shall have no military character, but may be armed for their personal defence with a revolver or automatic pistol.
 
 
ARTICLE 135.
 
The land referred to in Articles 128 to 131 shall not be subjected by Turkey or the Turkish authorities, or by Greece or the Greek authorities, as the case may be, to any form of rent or taxation. Representatives of the British, French or Italian Governments as well as persons desirous of visiting the graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials, shall at all times have free access thereto. The Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively undertake to maintain in perpetuity the roads leading to the said land.
 
The Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively undertake to afford to the British, French and Italian Governments all necessary facilities for obtaining a sufficient water supply for the requirements of the staff engaged in the maintenance or protection of the said graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials, and for the irrigation of the land.
 
 
ARTICLE 136.
 
The British, French and Italian Governments undertake to accord to the Turkish Government the benefits of the provisions contained in Articles 128 and 130 to 135 of the present Treaty for the establishment of graves, cemeteries, ossuaries and memorials of Turkish soldiers and sailors existing on the territories under their authority, including the territories detached from Turkey.
 
 
SECTION III. 
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
ARTICLE 137.
Subject to any agreements concluded between the High Contracting Parties, the decisions talcen and orders issued since the 30th October, 1918, until the coming into force of the present Treaty, by or in agreement with the authorities of the Powers who have occupied Constantinople, and concerning the property, rights and interests of their nationals, of foreigners or of Turkish nationals, and the relations of such persons with the authorities of Turkey, shall be regarded as definitive and shall give rise to no claims against the Powers or their authority.
 
All other claims arising from injury suffered in consequence of any such decisions or orders shall be submitted to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal.
 
 
ARTICLE 138.
 
In judicial matters, the decisions given and orders issued in Turkey from the 30th October, 1918, until the coming into force of the present Treaty by all judges, courts or authorities of the Powers who have occupied Constantinople, or by the Provisional Mixed Judicial Commission established on the 8th December, 1921, as well as the measures taken in execution of such decisions or orders, shall be regarded as definitive, without prejudice, however, to the terms of paragraphs IV and VI of the Amnesty Declaration dated this day.
 
Nevertheless, in the event of a claim being presented by a private person in respect of damage suffered by him in consequence of a judicial decision in favour of another private person given in a civil matter by a military or police court, this claim shall be brought before the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, which may in a proper case, order the payment of compensation or even restitution of the property in question.
 
 
ARTICLE 139.
 
Archives, registers, plans, title-deeds and other documents of every kind relating to the civil, judicial or financial administration, or the administration of Wakfs, which are at present in Turkey and are only of interest to the Government of a territory detached from the Ottoman Empire, and reciprocally those in a territory detached from the Ottoman Empire which are only of interest to the Turkish Government, shall reciprocally be restored.
 
Archives, registers, plans, title-deeds and other documents mentioned above which are considered by the Government in whose possession they are as being also of interest to itself, may be retained by that Government, subject to its furnishing on request photographs or certified copies to the Government concerned.
 
Archives, registers, plans, title-deeds and other documents which have been taken away either from Turkey or from detached territories shall reciprocally be restored in original, in so far as they concern exclusively the territories from which they have been taken.
 
The expense entailed by these operations shall be paid by the Government applying therefor.
 
The above stipulations apply in the same manner to the registers relating to real estates or Wakfs in the districts of the former Ottoman Empire transferred to Greece after 1912.
 
 
ARTICLE 140.
 
Prizes made during the war between Turkey and the other Contracting Powers prior to the 30th October, 1918, shall give rise to no claim on either side. The same shall apply to seizures effected after that date, for violation of the armistice, by the Powers who have occupied Constantinople.
 
It is understood that no claim shall be made, either by the Governments of the Powers who have occupied Constantinople or their nationals, or by the Turkish Government or its nationals, respecting small craft of all kinds, vessels of light tonnage, yachts and lighters which any of the said Governments may, between the 29th October, 1914, until the 1st January, 1923, have disposed of in their own harbours or in harbours occupied by them. Nevertheless, this stipulation does not prejudice the terms of paragraph VI of the Amnesty Declaration dated this day, nor the claims which private persons may be able to establish against other private persons in virtue of rights held before the 29th October, 1914.
 
Vessels under the Turkish flag seized by the Greek forces after the 30th October, 1918, shall be restored to Turkey.
 
 
ARTICLE 141 .
 
In accordance with Article 25 of the present Treaty, Articles 155, 250 and 440 and Annex III, Part VIII (Reparation) of the Treaty of Peace of Versailles, dated the 28th June, 1919, the Turkish Government and its nationals are released from any liability to the German Government or to its nationals in respect of German vessels which were the object during the war of a transfer by the German Government or its nationals to the Ottoman Government or its nationals without the consent of the Allied Governments, and at present in the possession of the latter.
 
The same shall apply, if necessary, in the relations between Turkey and the other Powers which fought on her side.
 
 
ARTICLE 142.
 
The separate Convention concluded on the 30th January, 1923, between Greece and Turkey, relating to the exchange of the Greek and Turkish populations, will have as between these two High Contracting Parties the same force and effect as if it formed part of the present Treaty.
 
 
ARTICLE 143.
 
The present Treaty shall be ratified as soon as possible.
 
The ratifications shall be deposited at Paris.
 
The Japanese Government will be entitled merely to inform the Government of the French Republic through their diplomatic representative at Paris when their ratification has been given; in that case, they must transmit the instrument of ratification as soon as possible.
 
Each of the Signatory Powers will ratify by one single instrument the present Treaty and the other instruments signed by it and mentioned in the Final Act of the Conference of Lausanne, in so far as these require ratification.
 
A first proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications shall be drawn up as soon as Turkey, on the one hand, and the British Empire, France, Italy and Japan, or any three of them, on the other hand, have deposited the instruments of their ratifications.
 
From the date of this first proces-verbal the Treaty will come into force between the High Contracting Parties who have thus ratified it, Thereafter it will come into force for the other Powers at the date of the deposit of their ratifications.
 
As between Greece and Turkey, however, the provisions of Articles 1, 2 (2) and 5-11 inclusive will come into force as soon as the Greek and Turkish Governments have deposited the instruments of their ratifications, even if at that time the proces-verbal referred to above has not yet been drawn up.
 
The French Government will transmit to all the Signatory Powers a certified copy of the proces-verbaux of the deposit of ratifications.
 
In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have slgned the present Treaty.
 
Done at Lausanne, the 24th July, 1923, in a single copy, which will be deposited in the archives of the Government of the French Republlc, which will transmit a certified copy to each of the Contracting Powers.
 
(L.S.) HORACE RUMBOLD. 
(L.S.) PELLE.
(L.S ) GARRONI.
(L.S.) G. C. MONTAGNA.
(L.S.) K. OTCHIAI.
(L-S.) E. K. VENISELOS.
(L.S.) D. CACLAMANOS.
(L.S.) CONST. DIAMANDY.
(L.S.) CONST. CONTZESCO.
( ) ______________ 
(L.S.) M. ISMET.
(L.S.) DR. RIZA NOUR.
(L S. ) HASSAN.